Human Anatomy Complete Detailed Guide: Parts, Names & Diagram

Overview of Human Anatomy

The human body comprises 200 bones, 650 muscles, 79 organs, and a big network of blood arteries. Within this organized framework, a complex collaboration of individual cells is present, diligently fulfilling their unique roles to sustain life. In our body’s unique design, there are two fundamental disciplines: physiology, which tells about the inner workings of the human body, and anatomy, which explores its complex structure. Human anatomy analyzes the body’s architecture, from the tiniest cellular components to the formation of tissues, organs, and interconnected systems. By studying human body anatomy, we gain valuable insights into the construction of our bodies and the cooperative relations among its diverse components, all of which are essential for preserving life.

Human Anatomy Diagram

Human Anatomy, Body Parts, Names & Diagram

Human Body Parts Names

Skeletal System

  • Axial Skeleton
    • Skull
      • Cranial Bones
        • Frontal bone
        • Parietal bones (2)
        • Temporal bones (2)
        • Occipital bone
        • Sphenoid bone
        • Ethmoid bone
      • Facial Bones
        • Nasal bones (2)
        • Maxilla bones (2)
        • Zygomatic bones (2)
        • Lacrimal bones (2)
        • Palatine bones (2)
        • Inferior nasal conchae (2)
        • Vomer bone
        • Mandible
    • Hyoid Bone
    • Auditory Ossicles
      • Malleus (hammer)
      • Incus (anvil)
      • Stapes (stirrup)
    • Vertebral Column (Spine)
      • Cervical Vertebrae (7)
      • Thoracic Vertebrae (12)
      • Lumbar Vertebrae (5)
      • Sacrum (5 fused vertebrae)
      • Coccyx (3-5 fused vertebrae)
    • Ribs
      • True Ribs (1-7)
      • False Ribs (8-12)
        • Vertebrochondral Ribs (8-10)
        • Floating Ribs (11-12)
  • Sternum (Breastbone)
    • Manubrium
    • Body (gladiolus)
    • Xiphoid process
  • Thoracic cage
    • Thoracic cavity
    • Superior thoracic aperture (thoracic inlet)
    • Inferior thoracic aperture
    • Intercostal space
    • Infrasternal angle
  • Appendicular Skeleton
    • Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder Girdle)
      • Clavicle (Collarbone)
      • Scapula (Shoulder Blade)
    • Upper Limb (Arm)
      • Humerus
      • Radius
      • Ulna
      • Carpal Bones
      • Metacarpal Bones
      • Phalanges (Finger Bones)
    • Pelvic Girdle (Hip Girdle)
      • Ilium
      • Ischium
      • Pubis
      • Acetabulum
    • Lower Limb (Leg)
      • Femur
      • Patella (Kneecap)
      • Tibia
      • Fibula
      • Tarsal Bones
      • Metatarsal Bones
      • Phalanges (Toe Bones)
  • Joints
    • Head and Neck Joints
      • Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
      • Atlanto-occipital Joint
    • Spinal Joints
      • Intervertebral Joints
      • Facet Joints (Zygapophyseal Joints)
      • Atlantoaxial Joint
    • Shoulder Joints
      • Glenohumeral Joint
      • Acromioclavicular Joint
      • Sternoclavicular Joint
    • Elbow Joint
      • Humeroulnar Joint
      • Humeroradial Joint
      • Proximal Radioulnar Joint
    • Wrist and Hand Joints:
      • Radiocarpal Joint
      • Intercarpal Joints
      • Carpometacarpal Joints
      • Metacarpophalangeal Joints (MCP Joints)
      • Interphalangeal Joints (IP Joints)
    • Hip Joint (Coxal Joint)
      • Acetabulofemoral Joint
    • Knee Joint
      • Tibiofemoral Joint
      • Patellofemoral Joint
    • Ankle and Foot Joints
      • Talocrural Joint (Ankle Joint)
      • Subtalar Joint
      • Midtarsal Joint (Chopart’s Joint)
      • Tarsometatarsal Joints
      • Metatarsophalangeal Joints (MTP Joints)
      • Interphalangeal Joints (IP Joints)
  • Cartilage
  • Ligaments
  • Tendons
  • Bone Marrow
  • Periosteum
  • Sesamoid Bones

Female reproductive system

  • Ovary
    • Ligament of ovary
    • Suspensory ligament of ovary
  • Fallopian tube
  • Uterus
    • Cervix of uterus
    • Round ligament of uterus
    • Pubocervical ligament
    • Cardinal ligament
    • Uterosacral ligament
  • Vagina
    • Hymen
    • Epoophoron
    • Paroophoron
  • Vulva
    • Mons pubis
    • Labia
  • Vestibule of vagina
  • Bulb of vestibule
  • Clitoris
    • Glans
    • Clitoral hood
  • Urinary meatus
    • Female urethra
  • Bartholin’s gland
  • Skene’s gland

Male reproductive system

  • Testicle
    • Tunica vaginalis
    • Tunica albuginea
    • Seminiferous tubules
    • Straight tubules
    • Rete testis
  • Epididymis
  • Paradidymis
  • Spermatic cord
    • Cremaster
  • Vas deferens
  • Seminal vesicle
  • Seminal gland
    • Ejaculatory duct
  • Prostate
  • Bulbourethral gland
  • Penis
    • Glans
  • Foreskin
  • Body of penis
    • Corpus cavernosum penis
    • Corpus spongiosum penis
  • Helicine arteries
  • Fascia of penis
    • Suspensory ligament of the penis
  • Urinary meatus
    • Male urethra
  • Scrotum
    • Dartos fascia
  • Perineum
    • Perineal body
    • Subcutaneous perineal pouch
    • Superficial perineal pouch
    • Deep perineal pouch
    • Ischio-anal fossa

Sense organs

  • Eye
  • Ear
  • Nose
  • Tongue

Integumentary system

  • Skin
  • Hair
  • Nail
  • Breast
  • Subcutaneous tissue

Human Muscle Anatomy

  • Upper Body Muscles
    • Thorax Muscles
      • Pectoralis major
      • Pectoralis minor
      • Subclavius
      • Serratus anterior
      • Levatores costarum
      • External intercostal muscle
      • Internal intercostal muscle
      • Innermost intercostal muscle
      • Subcostales
      • Transversus thoracic
      • Pectoral fascia
      • Clavipectoral fascia
      • Thoracic fascia
      • Endothoracic fascia
      • Thoracic diaphragm
    • Shoulder Muscles (Deltoid Muscles)
      • Anterior Deltoid
      • Medial Deltoid
      • Posterior Deltoid
    • Upper Arm Muscles (Arm Muscles)
      • Biceps Brachii
        • Long Head
        • Short Head
      • Brachialis
      • Brachioradialis
    • Back Muscles
      • Trapezius
      • Latissimus dorsi
      • Rhomboid major
      • Rhomboid minor
      • Levator scapulae
      • Serratus posterior inferior
      • Serratus posterior superior
      • Anterior cervical intertransversarii
      • Lateral posterior cervical intertransversarii
      • Intertransversarii laterales lumborum
      • Erector spinae
        • Erector spinae aponeurosis
        • Iliocostalis
        • Longissimus
        • Spinalis
      • Spinotransversales
        • Splenius
      • Transversospinales
        • Multifidus
        • Semispinalis
        • Rotatores
      • Interspinales
      • Intertransversarii
      • Thoracolumbar fascia
    • Neck Muscles:
      • Platysma
      • Longus colli
      • Longus capitis
      • Scalenus anterior
      • Scalenus medius
      • Scalenus posterior
      • Sternocleidomastoid
      • Suboccipital muscles
      • Suprahyoid muscles
      • Infrahyoid muscles
    • Rotator Cuff Muscles:
      • Supraspinatus
      • Infraspinatus
      • Teres Minor
      • Subscapularis
    • Abdominal Muscles (Upper Abdomen)
      • Rectus abdominis
      • Pyramidalis
      • External oblique
        • Inguinal ligament
      • Superficial inguinal ring
      • Internal oblique
        • Cremaster
      • Transversus abdominis
        • Inguinal falx
        • Deep inguinal ring
      • Linea alba
      • Linea semilunaris
      • Inguinal canal
      • Quadratus lumborum
      • Abdominal fascia
      • Pelvic fascia
      • Pelvic diaphragm
        • Levator ani
        • Ischiococcygeus
        • External anal sphincter
    • Triceps Brachii
    • Serratus Anterior
  • Lower Body Muscles
    • Hip Muscles:
      • Gluteus Maximus
      • Gluteus Medius
      • Gluteus Minimus
    • Thigh Muscles (Quadriceps)
      • Rectus Femoris
      • Vastus Lateralis
      • Vastus Medialis
      • Vastus Intermedius
    • Thigh Muscles (Hamstrings)
      • Biceps Femoris
      • Semimembranosus
      • Semitendinosus
    • Adductors (Inner Thigh Muscles):
      • Adductor Magnus
      • Adductor Longus
      • Adductor Brevis
      • Gracilis
    • Hip Flexors:
      • Iliopsoas
      • Tensor Fasciae Latae (TFL)
    • Calf Muscles:
      • Gastrocnemius
      • Soleus
      • Tibialis Posterior
    • Shin Muscles (Anterior Leg)
      • Tibialis Anterior
    • Hip Rotators (Deep Muscles):
      • Piriformis
      • Gemellus Superior and Inferior
      • Obturator Internus and Externus

Alimentary System

  • Mouth
    • Oral Cavity
    • Teeth
    • Tongue
    • Salivary Glands Major & Minor
  • Uvula
  • Fauces
  • Pharynx
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
  • Large intestine
  • Liver
  • Gall Bladder Pancreas

Respiratory System

  • Nose
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Lungs

Urinary system

  • Kidney
    • Nephrons
    • Renal arteries
    • Renal veins
    • Renal pelvis
  • Ureter
  • Urinary bladder
  • Female urethra
  • Male urethra

Human Nervous system

  • Central nervous system
    • Meninges
    • Spinal cord
    • Brain
  • Peripheral nervous system
    • Cranial nerves
    • Spinal nerves
    • Autonomic division (Autonomic nervous system)

Cardiovascular system

  • Heart
    • Chordae tendinae
    • Right atrium
    • Right ventricle
    • Left atrium
    • Left ventricle
    • Endocardium
    • Myocardium
    • Pericardial cavity
    • Pericardium
  • Arteries
    • Pulmonary trunk
    • Aorta
  • Veins
    • Veins of heart
    • Pulmonary veins
    • Superior vena cava
    • Inferior vena cava
    • Hepatic portal vein
  • Lymphatic trunks and ducts
    • Thoracic duct
    • Cisterna chyli

Bones of Human Anatomy

Vertebral Column or Spine

The vertebral column, or the spine, is an essential part of the human body’s axial skeleton. It serves the crucial functions of safeguarding the spinal cord and nerves while facilitating an upright posture.

This intricate skeletal framework bears most of the body’s weight to maintain a vertical pose. Its distinct feature lies in the remarkable modification of the initial notochord, a flexible rod found in all chordates, into a segmented array of bones referred to as vertebrae.

These vertebrae are interposed with intervertebral discs, which enhance the spine’s durability and flexibility.

Each vertebra is named according to its position within the spinal column. The spinal canal is enclosed within the vertebral column, a protective cavity that envelops and shields the spinal cord.

This extraordinary anatomical feature highlights the intricate design of the vertebrate body, wherein the change of the notochord has given rise to this complex and indispensable vertebral structure.

Spine Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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The femur, scientifically called the thigh bone, is important within the human skeletal system. It is in the lower limb and between the hip and knee joints. This intricate bone shapes the hip joint, as its proximal end forms an articulation point with the pelvic socket.

Moreover, the femur’s distal end engages with the tibia and patella to form a complex knee joint structure. Beyond this, the femur bears the human body’s weight during stationary and dynamic activities. It together acts as a stabilizing agent to maintain the equilibrium and coordination.

Additionally, the femur is an essential anchor point for muscles, tendons, and ligaments that produce the intricate movements of the hip and knee joints.

Femur Bone Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Muscle of Human Anatomy


The biceps brachii is a large muscle in the anterior upper arm that extends from the shoulder to the elbow. It has two unique heads, the long and short heads, which emerge from the scapula. These heads join together to produce a muscular system that joins to the upper section of the forearm.

The biceps brachii’s primary biological tasks are forearm flexion and supination. The forearm curling at the elbow joint is referred to as forearm flexion. Conversely, supination includes the rotation of the forearm, which puts the palm upward.

Although the biceps span the shoulder and elbow joints, they primarily impact the latter, enabling these essential activities.

Biceps Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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The triceps brachii muscles are essential extensor muscles located in the upper limbs of various animals. They include the principal posterior muscle group of the arm, covering nearly the entire length of the humerus bone.

These muscles originate from distinct points on the humerus and scapula, featuring three distinct heads: the long head, medial head, and lateral head. Their convergence occurs through a common tendon attachment onto the ulna bone.

Biologically, the primary function of the triceps brachii muscle is to execute forearm extension at the elbow joint.

Furthermore, the long head of the triceps aids in extending and adducting the arm at the shoulder joint. Beyond their role, these muscles possess a critical anatomical function. They establish pathways that enable the traversal of neurovascular networks, enabling the passage of nerves and blood vessels.


The thigh is a major part of the human anatomy present in the lower limb’s anatomical structure. It is present between the hip, housing the pelvis, and the knee joint. Within the thigh, the femur is the major bone which has exceptional strength, density, and robustness.

Functionally, the femur serves as a ball and socket joint at the hip and a modified hinge joint at the knee. Remarkably, the thigh region houses various prominent muscles in the human body. These muscles play a pivotal role in facilitating various body movements, including bending, flexing, and rotational actions.

Additionally, they bear most of the body’s total weight. Furthermore, these muscles help in maintaining the structural integrity of the hips and legs. Also, they contribute significantly to the critical aspects of balance maintenance.

Thigh Muscle Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Joints of Human Anatomy

Wrist Joint

In human anatomy, the wrist is anatomically known as the carpus or carpal bones. It comprises eight distinct bones that create the essential framework of the proximal segment of the hand.

The scientific name for the wrist joint is the radiocarpal joint, which serves as the point of articulation connecting the radius to the carpus. Furthermore, it encompasses the carpus and the distal portions of the bones in the forearm.

The proximal regions of the five metacarpal bones together form the metacarpus. At the same time, a complex sequence of interconnected joints exists among these anatomical components.

Wrist Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Knee Joint

The knee joint, or a synovial joint, serves as the essential linkage point between the femur, tibia, and patella bones. This complex hinge joint contains two primary components: the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral articulations.

The tibiofemoral joint forms a connection between the tibia and the femur, while the patellofemoral joint interfaces the patella with the femur. Remarkably, the knee joint ranks as the largest articulation within the human body and undergoes lots of stress.

Its unique configuration of bone structures acts as a pivotal axis, facilitating the action of knee flexor and extensor muscles. The establishment of joint stability in response to mechanical forces necessitates the presence of an intricate interconnection of both extracapsular and intracapsular ligamentous structures.

In conjunction with muscle extensions spanning the joint, it plays a crucial role in providing the necessary support and reinforcement.

Knee Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Ankle Joint

The ankle joint is scientifically known as the talocrural joint. It is a synovial articulation that connects the distal ends of the fibula and tibia in the leg to the talus bone in the foot.

This intricate hinge joint comprises two distinct articulations, often likened to a tenon and mortise arrangement. In this analogy, the tibia and fibula act as the mortise, forming a receptive groove, while the talus assumes the role of the tenon, fitting snugly within the groove.

Primarily, the ankle joint facilitates essential movements such as dorsiflexion (raising the foot upwards) and plantar flexion (pointing the foot downward).

Furthermore, it contributes to subtler actions like pronation and supination, which involve rotational movements in conjunction with the subtalar and midtarsal joints. Moreover, during the initial phases of the gait cycle, the ankle joint plays a pivotal role as a shock absorber.

This vital function comes into play as the heel makes contact with the ground, attenuating the impact forces experienced during ambulation.

Shoulder Joint

The shoulder joint consists of a clavicle and scapula connecting to the proximal humerus of the upper limb. It comes with good mobility, allowing a wide range of movements. These movements are flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, external and internal rotation, and even circumduction.

From lifting heavy objects to throwing a ball at speeds, the shoulder has a great range of movements and precision. Its great flexibility and versatility make it the most portable joint in the human body.

However, this mobility causes reduced stability. The surrounding shoulder muscles protect the shoulder joint in conjunction with ligaments and tendons, particularly those associated with the rotator cuff muscles.

This balance between mobility and stability makes the shoulder joint one of the most frequently injured joints in the body.

Shoulder Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Alimentary System of Human Anatomy


The human mouth serves as the initial segment of the alimentary canal, where food ingestion initiates and saliva production occurs. Positioned below the nose, it assumes an elliptical shape, starting at the lips and extending toward the tonsils.

Functionally, the mouth is an integral component of both the digestive and respiratory systems.

Within the oral cavity, the oral mucosa forms the epithelial lining. This mucous membrane facilitates various critical functions. Beyond its primary role in the digestive process, the mouth substantially contributes to communication.

While vocalization primarily originates from the throat, the tongue, lips, and jaw collectively contribute to articulating the diverse range of speech sounds.

The mouth encompasses two distinct regions: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper. It maintains a moist environment and is adorned with a mucous membrane, housing the teeth. The lips demarcate the transition from mucous membrane to the skin, which envelops the majority of the body.

Mouth Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Human teeth are integral components of the digestive system, primarily tasked with the mechanical breakdown of food for subsequent ingestion and digestion. These teeth come in four distinct types, each possessing a specialized role.

The incisors are responsible for the initial cutting of food items, while canines excel at tearing apart morsels. Meanwhile, premolars and molars excel at crushing food particles.

Teeth are firmly anchored in either the upper jaw (maxilla) or lower jaw (mandible), securely enveloped by protective gum tissue. Teeth are competent at their intended duties, consisting of diverse tissues of varying densities and hardness.

Typically, adults have a set of 32 permanent teeth, yet exceptions exist. Some individuals may exhibit hypodontia, a condition characterized by the absence of certain teeth.

Tooth Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Respiratory System of Human Anatomy


The human nose, a main facial feature, serves as the primary respiratory organ and plays a pivotal role in the olfactory system. Its structure is mainly determined by nasal bones, nasal cartilage, and the nasal septum, which divides the nasal cavity into two parts.

Notably, males typically possess larger noses than females. Functionally, the nose holds a vital position in respiration. The nasal mucosa, covering the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, carries out essential functions such as warming and moistening inhaled air.

This process is significantly aided by nasal conchae, which are bone structures within the nasal walls resembling shells.

Furthermore, the nose acts as a filter for incoming air through the action of nasal hair in the nostrils, preventing large particles from entering the lungs.

Sneezing is a reflex mechanism designed to expel irritants from the nasal mucosal lining. Sneezing can potentially transmit infections as it generates aerosols containing droplets that may harbour pathogens.

Nose Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Sense organs in Human Anatomy


The eyes are complex sensory organs responsible for capturing light and transmitting visual data to the brain. The human eye serves as a vital sensory organ within the sensory nervous system, responsive to the spectrum of visible light.

It enables humans to perceive their surroundings, maintain equilibrium, and regulate their circadian rhythms.

They possess a remarkable ability to perceive a wide range of information, covering approximately 200 degrees of the visual field, encompassing both front-facing and peripheral views.

These optical wonders function in unison to detect images, motion, and depth, exhibiting the capacity to discern countless hues within the visible spectrum.

Various factors can impact the functionality of the eyes, encompassing prevalent visual impairments such as myopia (commonly known as nearsightedness), astigmatism, and traumatic injuries.

Eye Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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The ear, an essential organ in mammals, serves the dual purpose of facilitating auditory perception and maintaining bodily equilibrium through the vestibular system. It comprises three distinct components: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. Among these, the outer ear encompasses the visible elements, namely the pinna and ear canal. It is commonly denoted as the “ear.”

Functionally, your ears play a pivotal role in two vital processes:

Auditory Sensation: When acoustic waves infiltrate the ear canal, they provoke vibrations in the tympanic membrane, commonly known as the eardrum. This mechanical oscillation is subsequently transmitted to a triad of minute ossicles within the middle ear. These ossicles, in turn, serve to amplify and convey the acoustic waves to the inner ear.

Within the inner ear, minuscule hair cells, referred to as stereocilia, perform a remarkable task. They transmute the mechanical vibrations into electrical energy, which is then conveyed along nerve fibres to the brain.

Maintenance of Equilibrium: Situated within the inner ear are semicircular canals, which are fluid-filled structures housing hair-like sensors. These sensors detect motion and position changes in the head. Upon head movement, the fluid contained within these circular canals undergoes motion, leading to displacement of the hair sensors.

These sensors then communicate this spatial information via the vestibular nerve to the brain. In response, the brain orchestrates signals to adjust muscular activity, ensuring precise balance and stability.

Ear Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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The tongue is found within the oral cavity of typical tetrapods. This muscular organ actively participates in the chewing and deglutition phases of the digestion of food.

The tongue maintains sensitivity while remaining moistened by the secretion of saliva. In addition to its sensory role, the tongue plays a crucial part in the maintenance of oral hygiene by naturally cleansing the dentition.

Notably, the tongue’s main function in humans is the facilitation of speech, enabling the articulation of a diverse range of phonetic sounds necessary for clear communication. In other animals, it contributes to vocalization. Moreover, the tongue ensures the unimpeded passage of air through the pharynx, aiding in proper respiration.

Anatomically, the human tongue can be divided into two distinct regions: the anterior oral portion and the posterior pharyngeal region. These divisions are instrumental in carrying out its multifaceted biological functions.

Tongue Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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The Integument of Human Anatomy


Nails are real as defensive structures located prominently at the distal ends of the digits within the primate species. It represents the analogous adaptation to the claws seen in tetrapod counterparts. Fingernails and toenails manifest as structural formations primarily constructed from alpha-keratin, an inherently robust and rigid proteinaceous compound.

Notably, alpha-keratin also constitutes the structural basis for the keratinized appendages observed in the integument of vertebrate species, including the formidable claws, sturdy hooves, and resilient horns.

Nail Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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Hair, a protein filament originating from dermal follicles, stands as a unique hallmark of mammals. Its composition primarily comprises alpha keratin. These hair follicles, cylindrical in nature, encompass the hair’s root and shaft. They reside within the uppermost layers of the skin.

Remarkably, at birth, the human body boasts a remarkable tally of over 5 million hair follicles, with the head alone hosting more than one million.

A fascinating attribute of hair follicles is their capacity to undergo degeneration and subsequent regeneration, setting them apart from most bodily structures. This unique process plays a pivotal role in the continuous cycle of hair growth throughout one’s lifetime.


The skin, the body’s largest organ, forms an integral part of the integumentary system, comprising hair, nails, sweat glands, and oil glands. It serves as a flexible and typically soft outer tissue layer enveloping the vertebrate organism.

Its primary roles encompass safeguarding, homeostasis maintenance, and sensory perception. Functionally, it acts as a robust barrier against exogenous elements, including pathogens, chemical agents, and temperature fluctuations.

Human Body Parts


The human hand, at the far end of the upper limb, represents a wonder of evolutionary development. It has robust strength for climbing terrains and remarkable precision for manipulating tiny objects and executing complicated tasks.

They come with a specific arrangement of bones, completed by an intricate network of attached muscles and neurovascular structures for sensory and motor functions. However, it’s important to note that the intrinsic muscles within the hand are not only responsible for its wide range of motion.

Equally crucial are the muscles located in the forearm, which extend their tendons into the hand through a remarkably adaptable and complex anatomical structure known as the wrist.

Hand Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

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