Complete Guide to Tooth Anatomy: Learn Parts, Names & Diagram

Teeth are incredible structures found in the oral cavities of various living organisms, including humans. They serve essential functions, such as masticating food, providing facial support, and aiding communication. A tooth is a complex entity composed of layers with unique characteristics and functions. In this blog, we will delve into the tooth anatomy, exploring each layer in detail and uncovering the secrets of this remarkable structure. The intricate anatomy of teeth and their regenerative potential make them one of the most remarkable structures in the body. Whether you’re a dental professional or fascinated by the wonders of the human body, exploring the parts of teeth is sure to leave you in awe of the extraordinary complexity of our bodies.

Tooth Anatomy Diagram

Tooth Anatomy, Parts, Names & Diagram

Parts of Tooth

  • Crown
    • Enamel
    • Dentin
    • Pulp
    • Cementum
  • Root
    • Root canal
    • Periodontal Ligament
    • Apical Foramen
  • Gingiva (Gum)
  • Alveolar Bone
  • Apical Foramen
  • Incisors
  • Canines
  • Premolars
  • Molars
  • Occlusal Surface
  • Cusp
  • Fissure
  • Ridge
  • Enamel rod
  • Enamel tuft
  • Cementoenamel Junction (CEJ)
  • Interdental Papilla
  • Apex
  • Dentin Tubules
  • Dentinoenamel Junction (DEJ)
  • Pulp Chamber

Tooth Anatomy: Parts & Functions


The different layers of enamel, dentin, and cementum that make up the crown of a tooth, which is visible above the gum line, each have mineralization patterns that represent the tooth’s developmental history.

These layers provide dentistry with important details regarding a person’s age and general health.

Additionally, the crown’s texture and structure have effects that go beyond simple oral health. Scientists have shown that these characteristics considerably impact human speech and social relationships, highlighting the crucial function of teeth in self-expression and communication.

The crown is further divided into several parts:


Thousands of densely packed rods that provide strength and durability make up the tooth’s surface and dentin underneath it. These rods align differently depending on where the tooth is in the mouth. By distributing chewing pressures, these designs guard against cracks and fractures.

Strontium and fluoride, two trace elements interestingly found in enamel, can reveal a person’s diet and environment.


Even though dentin isn’t as strong as enamel, it is marvellous. It comprises small, mineralized tubules that connect the pulp to the cementum or enamel and allow sensory information to reach the brain.

The ability of dentin to regenerate throughout a person’s lifetime is another unique characteristic. It is made possible by specialized cells called odontoblasts, which create new dentin in reaction to damage or decay. Dentin can be exposed by severe wear or damage to the enamel, which can cause sensitivity and unpleasant discomfort.


The intricate, three-dimensional network of blood arteries, nerves, and immune cells that make up a tooth’s pulp is crucial for tooth growth, nutrient absorption, and healing.

Additionally, one of the most sensitive tissues in the body, it can sense changes in pressure, temperature, and pain. Within milliseconds of stimulation, the pulp’s sensitivity allows it to transmit impulses to the brain!

This quick reaction is essential for stopping additional harm to the tooth and starting the healing process. However, if the pulp is damaged or infected, it may result in agonizing discomfort and perhaps fatal consequences.


The underappreciated hero of dental health is cementum, the whitish mineralized tissue surrounding teeth’ roots. This strong, durable substance is a vital anchor for teeth in the jawbone since it is softer than enamel but tougher than bone.

Minerals and collagen fibres in cement give it strength and flexibility. But here’s the strange part: Cementum can regenerate, which means it can mend harm from grinding, biting, and chewing.


Despite being an important part of dental architecture and playing a key role in keeping healthy teeth, the tooth root frequently needs to be recognized and appreciated. The intricate and fascinating root deeply buried beneath the jawbone includes a complex web of blood vessels and nerves.

These components give the tooth hearty food and support, eventually assuring its life.

Without the root, our teeth would be dead, inanimate objects in our mouths unable to perform their essential tasks. The tooth can endure the significant pressures that arise from biting and chewing because the root is an anchor, firmly anchoring the tooth.

Additionally, it acts as a conduit, enabling the flow of essential nutrients and oxygen from the circulation to

The root is made up of three main parts:

Root Canal

The inside of a tooth that continues into the jawbone is known as the root canal. The dental pulp, a delicate tissue that supports the tooth by giving it oxygen, nourishment, and sensory input, is housed inside this complex network.

In the event of injury or illness, the tooth pulp may become inflamed or infected, producing excruciating pain. A qualified dentist must carefully and precisely traverse the convoluted canal system during the innovative and challenging process known as root canal therapy.

During the procedure, the dentist must remove the diseased pulp, much like they would retrieve a fine spider web from a maze-like cavern. The dentist next cleans the canal with potent antibacterial substances, removing any lingering germs that might cause more damage.

Periodontal Ligament

A connective tissue that is as thin as a sheet of paper and as strong as steel is the periodontal ligament (PDL). It creates a tight seal that maintains teeth securely in place by joining the teeth’ cementum to the jaw’s alveolar bone. But the PDL does more than that.

Additionally, it transfers the pressures generated during biting and chewing to the bone, preserving the integrity of the tooth-bone interface.

Additionally, it contains a sensing function that monitors variations in pressure and discomfort to guard against harming teeth. It’s understandable why the PDL is regarded as one of the body’s most remarkable tissues.

Apical Foramen

Life-giving nutrients can enter the tooth through the apical foramen, a small but potent opening at the apex of the root. It resembles a hidden entrance that leads to the thumping centre of the tooth, where blood vessels and nerves toil assiduously to maintain the tooth’s health and vitality.

Without the apical foramen, the tooth would be cut off from its source of life and eventually perish like a plant without water.

Gingiva (Gum)

The unsung hero of dental health is the gingiva or gum tissue. It is a thick, fibrous tissue that covers and shields the jawbone and teeth from harm. But did you know that your skin tone may affect the colour of your gingiva? It can be anything from pink to dark brown.

The gingiva can suffer damage from gingivitis, a frequent disorder brought on by inflammation brought on by plaque accumulation. Gums that are red, swollen, and bleeding are symptoms. However, gingivitis may be prevented and treated with good oral care and routine dental exams, ensuring your gingiva remains robust and healthy.

Alveolar Bone

When it comes to supporting teeth, the alveolar bone is the star of the show. It is a delicate, spongy bone that forms pockets around the teeth’s roots and supports them. But what’s amazing is how quickly it can change in reaction to mechanical forces.

That’s accurate. The alveolar bone may quickly alter its density and structure to accommodate the forces of biting and chewing. Furthermore, it is crucial for maintaining life since it supplies teeth with nutrients and blood.

Apical Foramen

Life-giving nutrients can enter the tooth through the apical foramen, a small but potent opening at the apex of the root. It resembles a hidden entrance that leads to the thumping centre of the tooth, where blood vessels and nerves toil assiduously to maintain the tooth’s health and vitality.


In humans and many other animals, the front teeth are called incisors. Their flat, delicate, and cutting-edge edges make them useful for biting and slicing food. Interestingly, certain animals have incisors substantially modified for particular jobs.

One species of Arctic whale, the narwhal, has a single long, spiralled incisor that may reach a length of three meters. Foraging for food in deep water and breaking through ice require using this tooth.


Humans and many other animals have canines, commonly called “fangs,” which are pointed teeth on each side of the incisors. They function as food biters and tearers. However, canines have developed into highly specialized structures for competition and defence in certain animals.

For instance, male walruses have two long, curved canines that may reach lengths up to one meter. These tusks are utilized in battles between males over territory and mates.


In humans and many other animals, premolars are the teeth that lie between canines and molars. They stand out for flat surfaces with ridges, or cusps, used for food crushing and grinding. Interestingly, certain animals have premolars highly customized for their particular diet.

For instance, the giant panda’s four premolars have undergone significant modification to enable bamboo digestion. Teeth are wider and flatter than conventional premolars and have a thick enamel covering.


The biggest and sturdiest teeth at the rear of the mouth of humans and many other animals are called molars. Animals utilize their molars, which have a large, flat surface with many cusps, to grind and smash their food. It’s important to note that certain animals have highly specialized molars for their special diet.

Dental cusps are present in the teeth of herbivorous animals like cows and horses. The ridges and valleys of these cusps help break down resistant plant matter. On the other hand, carnivorous animals with fewer cusps include lions and wolves. The purpose of these teeth is to rip and shear flesh.

Occlusal Surface

The leading performer in your toothy symphony, the occlusal surface of a tooth, is similar to the crown gem of your mouth.

Enamel, the tissue that is the toughest and most mineralized, covers this surface of the human body. It operates fine as it is made to endure the tremendous pressure of biting and chewing.

Cusps and ridges, which resemble little mountains and valleys and help break down food into digestible pieces, are also found on the occlusal surface.

And let’s remember the pulp, a soft, sensitive tissue found in the centre of the tooth that supplies the nutrition and feels required to maintain the health and functionality of your tooth.


A cusp is a small mountain range emerging from the occlusal surface that resembles a tooth inside a tooth. These elevated regions resemble a row of miniature teeth poised to bite into a succulent steak and have a particular design to break down tough and chewy meals.

Cusps, which vary in number, shape, and size depending on the kind of tooth, are covered by an enamel layer and are composed of dentin and pulp. They are as distinctive as fingerprints. Despite their hard surface, cusps can erode over time due to tooth disease, grinding, or trauma.


A fissure resembles a hidden doorway that is easy to miss. It is a little depression or groove on the occlusal surface of a tooth. These intricate nooks may be challenging to clean, making them ideal for hiding germs. It might severely damage your tooth.

But don’t worry! Dental sealants can be of assistance. On the outside of teeth, they are tiny, protective coverings. Sealants block off these unnoticed channels and stop the spread of tooth deterioration. A dental treasure map, fissures are. They can be found more frequently on molars and premolars. These locations could be more complicated and challenging to get to.


A ridge-like enamel highway. It is an elevated, curving route that spans the occlusal surface of a tooth. These rough pathways guide food through the mouth like a professional navigator. They aid in reducing chewy, difficult meals into bite-sized bits.

Ridges occur in various sizes and forms and are formed of pulp and dentin and covered in an enamel coating. They might have the smooth curves of premolars or the sharp ridges of molars. Ridges are prone to damage over time, just like a real roadway. Teeth grinding, tooth decay, and injury are possible causes of this.

Enamel Rod

The foundation of the tooth’s strong outer enamel covering is an enamel rod. They guard the tooth against the ravages of time and decay like little troops on duty.

Enamel rods are exceedingly robust and durable and resist tremendous strain and stress. They battle tooth decay and erosion at every turn, acting as the superheroes of the dentistry profession.

Enamel Tuft

The enamel tufts on a tooth’s surface resemble enigmatic patterns and hold over from the tooth’s intriguing developmental past. They resemble ancient hieroglyphics and convey how the tooth was made, a visual reminder of the difficult and intricate steps in producing just one tooth.

The enamel tufts on each tooth serve as a distinctive identification, similar to the creator’s signature. They are unmistakable patterns, similar to a fingerprint, that testify to the originality and uniqueness of the tooth.

Cementoenamel Junction (CEJ)

Think of the cementoenamel junction as the “seam” where your favourite dress’s two dissimilar materials, the cementum (rough denim) and the enamel (smooth silk), meet. The CEJ connects the tooth’s root and crown like a seam for two materials.

Numerous tissues and cells that support and keep the tooth’s structure fixed may be found at this juncture. Damage to the CEJ can result in various dental issues, including gum disease and tooth sensitivity.

Interdental Papilla

The interdental papilla protects the teeth from outside attackers like a castle. The gingival papilla, a triangular-shaped tissue, serves as a defence barrier between neighbouring teeth.

Its size and shape can change based on the teeth’ location, shape, and the tissues’ health. By shielding the supporting bone and soft tissues, the interdental papilla maintains the general health and stability of the teeth.


The nerve centre of a tooth is accessible through the apex of the tooth, which resembles a hidden tunnel. The nerves and blood vessels enter the tooth through tiny holes known as apical foramina at the tip of the tooth’s root.

A thin coating of cementum that serves as a shield to guard the underlying tissues from harm is also present on the apex. Without the apex, the tooth couldn’t get the oxygen and nutrients it needs to be alive and healthy.

Dentin Tubules

Think of the dentin tubules as the tooth’s superhighway, a network of tiny passageways linking the outer layer to the inner core. Odontoblastic processes, which are cellular extensions of the odontoblasts, are all around these tunnels, filled with fluid.

The dentin tubules are essential for transferring sensory information to the pulp’s nerve terminals and for fluid exchange between the pulp and the tissues around it. The tooth wouldn’t be able to operate correctly without these little channels.

Dentinoenamel Junction (DEJ)

Like the Grand Canyon of the tooth, the dentin enamel junction is a spectacular intersection of two disparate worlds. The two tissues unite and become one at this point, where the dentin and enamel meet.

Because it creates a solid link between the enamel and the dentin, the DEJ is essential for the structural stability of the tooth. Additionally, it is where different minerals, such as calcium and phosphate, are transferred from the enamel to the dentin, maintaining the general health and durability of the tooth.

Pulp Chamber

The pulp chamber is the tooth’s “heart” or “engine” that keeps it working properly. The pulp, soft, living tissue of blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue, is located in this core region of the tooth.

Dentin is actively formed and maintained via the apical foramen, which joins the pulp chamber and root canal. Additionally, it is in charge of the sensory function of the tooth, which enables us to feel pressure, heat, and cold. The tooth wouldn’t work correctly and would be dead without the pulp chamber.

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