A dust collection system is an air quality improvement system used in industries, warehouses, corporate offices, homes, and commercial to improve the breathable quality of air and workspace safety by removing particulate matter from the environment and air. The motive behind the dust collection system is to remove debris, hazardous and airborne dust particles from the air to protect employees from illness, prevent damage to the equipment and factory production. So, it is necessary to use a proper system to maintain the workspace clean and healthy.
Parts of Dust Collection System
The dust collection system consists of various components, and each component contributes to being the system in working condition. The parts are,
- Duct and Ductwork
- Dust filter
- Dust filter cleaning system
Ductwork and ductwork
The function of the duct is to give the path to drive air and duct particles from various machines, welding areas, machining areas, cleaning work areas, etc. The size and shape of the duct can vary as per the application and requirement.
Some common materials of the duct are galvanized steel. Aluminum, polyurethane, flexible ducting (flexible plastic with metal wire covering), PVC, etc.
While designing any duct, it is necessary to consider the variety of dust particles present near the workspace. As per that size, and shape selection of the material depends. Leakages in the ducting need to avoid for a better working environment.
The function of the blower is to pull the contaminated air through the duct into the ductwork and send it to the filter unit. Centrifugal blower is the first choice for this operation. It has a rotating wheel placed inside the casing and the motor drives it. The axial blower is also using in some cases.
While selecting a blower, it is necessary to consider relevant factors such as volume of air (CFM-Cubic Feet per Minute), the static pressure, moisture, temperature, air type of surrounding, etc. The selection of the correct blower gives good performance throughout the system.
The purpose of the dust filter is to remove the dust particles from the air and make it a breathable quality. From the various portions of the organization, the blower pulls the air from the ducts. So, this air passes from the air filter to remove dust and other particles.
The air-to-cloth ratio decides the efficiency of the dust filtration system. The amount of air that passes through the square root of the filter is known as the air to cloth ratio. So, the lower the ratio, the higher the filtration efficiency of the system and vice versa.
Dust filter cleaning system
As dust filtering is a continuous process, this filter becomes accumulated by the various dust particles. So, it is necessary to clean it to make the system running with efficiently. For cleaning the filter shutting down the system, and clean it is the old procedure. It requires to stop working of the system.
It works on the phenomenon of static pressure. When static pressure in the filter unit becomes higher, the controller gives the signal to the diaphragm valve. This valve releases compressed air into the filter to removing dust particles accumulated in the filter. It is most common in pulse jet baghouse.
In the most automatic system, there is an alarm to notify the operator about the filter accumulation by the dust.
The function of the receptacle is the collect the dust particles filtered from the filter. When air passes through the filter, the filter removes it, and this dust falls in the container known as a receptacle.
It is necessary to design the receptacle as per the filtering rate and loading of the air. This receptacle can be in any shape or size. It can be a box, bag, valve, or screw conveyor. Material of them depends on their properties and availability.
Types of dust collection systems
The use of dust collection systems is typical in most industries. Its function is to remove dust particles from the air and make it breathable. So, the design of the dust collector is as good as required.
It is necessary to have proper required data about the various parameters of the industry to design the best dust collection system. These parameters are an area of industry, the number of employees working, different machine, their locations, the surrounding temperature, moisture, type of air, various operations happening in the industry, etc.
As per that, the type of dust collection system is using in the industry. It is also as per the standards norms set by the government.
Based on Size
Smaller Dust Collection System
It uses a single-stage vacuum unit and is suitable for small work environment applications. When the blower gets on, large waste particles get trapped in the impeller, and then air passes through the filter to trap small dust materials. Below the filter bin or bag are there to collect these dust particles.
Larger Dust Collection System
It uses a two-stage vacuum unit and is suitable for large work environment applications. In the first stage, it uses pre-collection systems like a cyclone to trap large dust particles. Once it passes from the pre-collection system, the filter unit traps the tiny dust and clean air recirculated to the work environment.
The Pre-collection system and filter unit have a bag or bin to collect waste particles.
Based on the filter and filtering method
- Shaker Dust Collection System
- Cyclone Dust Collection System
- Baghouse Dust Collection System
- Spark Arrestor
- Cartridge Dust Collection Systems
- Wet Scrubber Dust Collection System
- Downdraft Table
- Self-Contained, Internal Return Dust Collection System
Shaker Dust Collection System
The Shaker dust collection system shakes the filter unit to removes the accumulated dust particle into the bin. It happens when the airflow temporarily decreases. This system is using when a compressed air supplying system is not available to clean the filter.
In compartment design, during the maintenance of the filter, airflow is diverted to the other compartment to clean the existing compartment and others comparatively well.
It is using in foundries, mines, and mills.
Cyclone Dust Collection System
Cyclone dust collector uses centrifugal force of the air to remove the dust particle from the air. Cyclonic action takes place in the cyclone chamber to purify the air. Due to the shape of the cyclone, the air vortex pushes the air on the surface of the cyclone chamber, and dust particles slide down in the bin.
Cyclone dust collection system is using in mills, woodworking, agriculture, sandblasting, etc. It is suitable for the removal of heavy dust from the air. It acts as a pre-cleaner for the baghouse.
Baghouse Dust Collection System
Baghouse Dust Collection System uses fans to make a vacuum to force dust particles and containments through a filter. It is a general method of dust collection. The baghouse method divides based on how the filter gets clean.
- Shaking filter
- Forcing compressed air on the filter.
- By forcefully supplying fresh air in the reverse direction of airflow.
Dust particles can collect in the bin or hopper. Once the hopper becomes full, then remove it and place a new hopper in its place. It is a continuous process and does not require stopping the system to clean and remove the filter.
This system is using in hot conditions. In this system, the exhaust temperature coming from any machine reduces before passing into the dust collection device. Spark arrestor is common in the industries which are dealing with the heating metal processes.
Cartridge Dust Collection Systems
It is the type of fabric filter suitable for when small space is available. It uses a cylindrical shape cartridge that is open from both ends. One end of the cartridge is locked, and the other is open. When air is forced through the inlet, it strikes on the cartridge and falls on the lower side, and the air gets exhausted from the top.
In this downdraft, with the help of an impeller, air passes through the grating work surface. After this, air pass through the series of filters inside the downdraft table. Once air gets filter, it is passed into the working environment back.
The high-grade quality filter gives a good result, and the system has good efficiency.
Benefits of Dust Collection System
As per the industrial standards, a dust collection system becoming necessary for the industries to give benefits to employees.
Except for the regulation, the dust collection systems offer different benefits to industries and workers.
In a dust-free environment, workers feel safer. A healthy employee gives good performance and helps the organization to achieve goals. In the end, good employees are the assets of the company.
Cleaning of dust and dust particles from the air in the workspace reduces the odor. This odor creates a severe impact on the workers and employees.
In the environment like the presence of dust and gases causes chances of fire explosion. A system like a spark arrestor reduces the risk of fire explosion.
A neat and clean shopfloor increases the morale and confidence of the workers. A good working environment gives a healthy feeling to work better in the workspace.
Manufacturing Industries and operation does require Dust Collection System
During the welding, various hazardous gases and pollutants create a work environment more polluted. Sometimes these gases, dust can cause fire explosions if come in contact with a minor heat source.
Machining and grinding
These operations can create fumes and metal chips which can hamper the working environment.
Plasma cutting operation created gases and fumes which hamper the health of the worker. In this case, it uses a downdraft table to make the workspace safe.
As per the type of grain, dust and other dust particles are producing by the grain operation. These are very small and sticky. Various types of equipment are using in the grain industries.
So, the baghouse collection system is suitable for these types of industries.
Woodworking industries are processing various types of wood. Every wood can make dust and has a different impact on the health of the worker and environment. This dust can spread very quickly and very fast. So, it is necessary to remove dust from the air.
Cartridge and baghouse dust collection systems are more suitable for woodworking industries.
Food processing industries are carrying various operations like transporting, storing, mixing, etc. and produce dust. It uses multiple spices, flours, powders that can create dust.
Various type of machines like conveyors, mixers, packaging machines causes dust. So, there is a need for dust collection systems for a better working environment.
This industry deals with various coal, rocks, powder, and heavy operation, which causes fine and hazardous dust. This dust is dangerous for human beings. So there is the necessity of a dust collection system.
In the foundry, different types of sands, powders, and molten metal creating fumes and dust. This combination makes the working environment more toxic.
Which materials and particles do Dust Collection System captures?
Some materials are carbon, felt, molybdenum, metal chips, spice dust, sawdust, metal and non-metal dust, paper dust, sugar, silica, zinc, cosmetic powders, rice dust, etc.
Cost of Dust Collection System
The cost of a dust collection system depends on the size of the industry or business unit. The selection of this system depends on the various parameters like operations, space, workers, machines in the industry.
Below is a list of the factors that decide the cost of the dust collection systems.
- Type of Industry.
- Properties of the air (temperature & moisture present), and dust, and dust sizes.
- Dust removal load of the air.
- Air to cloth ratio.
- Fan size of the system.
- Type of conveyor or material handling unit.
- Paint of the system and its coating.
- Electrical unit and accessories.
A dust collection system is an air quality improvement system used in industries, warehouses, corporate offices, homes, and commercial to improve the breathable quality of air and workspace safety by removing particulate matter from the environment and air.
Based on Size
Based on the filter and filtering method
1. Shaker Dust Collection System
2. Cyclone Dust Collection System
3. Baghouse Dust Collection System
4. Spark Arrestor
5. Cartridge Dust Collection Systems
6. Wet Scrubber Dust Collection System