Fullering and Metalworking

What is fullering?

Fullering is an operation used in forging to drawing down the section of the workpiece. Drawing down means reducing the thickness of the workpiece and increasing the length of the workpiece. Due to the drawing down process, the workpiece turns into the desired shape. This process is also known as metalworking.

The dips on the workpiece form due to material distribution away from the center and forging area. Less force requires in the fullering process as compared to other forging operations. The fullering process is the open die forging process. Coves shaped fullers are used in fullering applications to get the desired shape within a shorter time.

The tool used in the fullering operation is called fuller. This fuller is to give the shape of the workpiece when the workpiece is hot at a specific temperature. There are two types of fuller depending upon use, Upper fuller and Bottom fuller. These two fullers are using in pairs for some applications. The shape of the fuller is round, cylindrical, or parabolic. The bottom fuller fix and place in the anvil hole, where the workpiece is to place. The upper fuller is using to get hammering stroke by the hammer.

Process of fullering

  1. The workpiece keeps on the tongs and heats at a specific temperature (Up to red).
  2. The heated workpiece place on the bottom fuller, which fixes on the anvil. The upper is fuller place on the workpiece, and the hammering process starts. The first stroke of hammering is called Knecking in.
  3. Due to the continued hammering process, there are series of dips place on the workpiece as below.
  4. High spot dip get hammer until it converted into the desired shape by the blacksmith’s hammer.
  5. After getting the desired shape, a suitable flatter is used to do a good surface finish as per application.
  6. Sometimes, such fullering process can achieve by only using the hammer and edge of the anvil without using of fuller tool ( Upper fuller and bottom fuller)

Difference between Fullering, Edging, and Swaging

ParametersFulleringEdgingSwaging
ProcessIncrease the length of the workpiece and decrease the diameter of the workpiece.Decrease the length of the workpiece and increase the diameter of the workpiece.Increase the diameter of the workpiece (as per use of swages) and gives a better surface finish.
Shape of dieConvexConcaveRound
Material DistributionAway from the centerToward the center of the workpiece.Toward the center of the workpiece.
Force requirementLessMoreMore