16 Essential Microscope Parts: Names, Functions & Labeled Diagram

Overview of Microscope Anatomy

Microscope Diagram

A microscope is a laboratory instrument used to examine very small or micro-objects such as cells and microorganisms that are not able seen by the naked eye. The study of investing in micro-objects using a microscope is known as microscopy. To examine these small objects with high magnification, parts of a microscope are made with adequate components with high accuracy. Due to that, accurate examination and results are possible to achieve. Microscope parts labeled diagram gives us all the information about its parts and their position in the microscope.

Microscope Parts Labeled Diagram

Microscope Parts, Names, Functions & Labeled Diagram

The principle of the Microscope gives you an exact reason to use it. It works on the 3 principles.

  1. Magnification
  2. Resolving Power
  3. Numerical Aperture.

Parts of Microscope

  • Head
  • Base
  • Arm
  • Eyepiece Lens
  • Eyepiece Tube
  • Objective Lenses
  • Nose Piece
  • Adjustment Knobs
  • Stage
  • Aperture
  • Microscopic Illuminator
  • Condenser Lens
  • Diaphragm
  • Condenser focus knobs
  • Abbe Condenser
  • Rack Stop

Microscope Parts and Functions

There are so many individual parts in the microscope. But, categorization of the compound microscope parts takes place in structural & optical parts. We are going to see these all parts & their functions in detail.

The Head is a part of a microscope that is on the upper side of the microscope and carries an optical lens.


The base is the overall support of the microscope & carries microscope illuminators, a brightness adjustment switch, and a light switch. It has good structural integrity and fixing provision on any surface.


The arm is a supporting element that connects the base and head of the microscope. An expensive and quality microscope has an articulated arm to move the head to get a better view. This arm helps to hold the microscope.


The eyepiece is also called an ocular lens. This eyepiece is to see the specimen & it is at the top of the microscope. The standard magnification power of an eyepiece is 10X, but it can vary up to 5X to 30X.

Eyepiece tube

The eyepiece tube is nothing but a holder to hold the eyepiece. In some binoculars, the eyepiece tube is flexible, which leads to bringing more visualization by adjusting the distance.

In some cases of the monocular microscope, the eyepiece is not flexible. This eyepiece tube connects the eyepiece and ocular lenses to the objective lenses.

Objective lenses

Objective lenses are the most critical part of the microscope. Its purpose is to visualize the specimen. There are 3-4 types of different objective lenses in any microscope.

It has a magnification power of 4X to 100 X. 4X objective lens is the shortest lens, while the 100X lens is the longest in terms of visualization.

Achromatic, parcentered, & parfocal lenses are available in standard and high-quality microscopes. In case to obtain high-quality magnification power, we will need a microscope with an abbe condenser. Usually, lenses are color-coded and can interchange the lenses within the microscope.

Nose Piece

The nose piece is also called a revolving turret. Its function is to hold different types of objective lenses. In case to obtain high magnification, only we have to revolve the eyepiece, but it purely depends upon the magnification power of objective lenses.

The adjustment knobs

Its function is to adjust the focus of the microscope. Coarse and fine adjustment knobs are two adjustment knobs are there.


The stage is the platform, where the specimen is placed and used for viewing. This stage has clips that can hold the specimen and restrict movement.

If the microscope has a mechanical stage, there is a knob that moves the specimens. One knob moves the specimen in right and left directions, whereas the other knob moves the specimen in an up-and-down orientation.


An aperture is nothing but a circular opening or hole in the middle portion of the stage. The function of the aperture is to transmit the light from the source of light or microscopic illuminator to the stage of the microscope.

Microscopic Illuminator

This microscopic illuminator is the source of light that situates at the base of the microscope. In most of the compounds of the microscope, a low-voltage halogen bulb using as an illuminator or source of light.


The condenser is to focus the light, which passes from the microscopic illuminator to the specimen. This condenser is located just below the diaphragm.

This diaphragm is one of the essential parts of the compound microscope, which will help to get an accurate and sharp image. The condenser has a magnification power of 400X and above.

More the magnification power of the microscope more accurate and sharp images we got. Some high-quality microscope comes with an Abbe condenser that has a magnification power of 1000X and above.


The diaphragm is also called as iris. This iris situates below the stage of the microscope. The function of the diaphragm is to control the amount of light that focuses on the specimen. This diaphragm can adjust the amount and intensity of light falling on the specimen.

In some standard and high-quality microscopes, this diaphragm comes with an Abbe condenser, which will help in retaining the amount of light and intensity of light.

Condenser Focus Knob

A condenser focus knob is to move the condenser of the microscope in the up and down direction. This condenser focus knob is used to control the focus of light on the specimen, which is held on the mechanical stage.

Abbe Condenser

These abbe condensers are particular types of condensers that are only designed and used in high-quality microscopes. This abbe condenser is for obtaining high magnification power, which goes up to 1000X and above.

The Rack Stopes

The function of the rack stop is to control or prevent object lenses from going too much closer to the specimen.  


Today, every laboratory, science lab, research lab, and more is using microscopes as the most essential and primary testing equipment. From the research of microorganisms to blood testing, we are using it. Without this innovative equipment, human beings can not create tremendous growth in the specialization of science, chemistry, biology, material science, and so many areas. It helps us in blood and urine testing for predicting illness and various diseases. All this is possible due to the different microscope parts and their accuracy. Hence Microscope is considered the best innovation for human beings.

Read more-

What is Microscope?

A microscope is a laboratory instrument used to examine very small or micro-objects such as cells and microorganisms that are not able seen by the naked eye.

What are the parts of a Microscope?

Eyepiece Lens
Eyepiece Tube
Objective Lenses
Stage and Stage Clips
Microscope Nosepiece
Rack Stop
Condenser Lens
Condenser focus knobs
Adjustment knobs

Which Microscope is often used to view metal surfaces?

Scanning Tunneling Microscopes are often used microscopes to view metal surfaces.

Which was the first cell viewed by the light microscope?

A cell inside the bark of the oak tree was viewed by the first light microscope by Van Leeuwenhoek.

What does the diaphragm do on a microscope?

The diaphragm of the microscope controls the width of the bundle of light rays reaching to the condenser.

Which two microscopes generate three-dimensional images?

Scanning Tunnel Microscope & Transmission Electron Microscope generated three-dimensional images.

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