20 Must-Know Parts of a Computer: Names, Functions & Diagrams

Overview of Computer Parts

Do you know life in the early 19th century and how we are going now in the 21st century? The answer is Yes, which is only possible due to new inventions and innovations. The computer is one of the best inventions ever. It is a programmed digital electronic machine that automatically does different arithmetic and logical operations. It is made of other parts of a computer, which makes it unusual to carry out intelligent tasks. These computer parts are also referred to as hardware and have equal importance. Damages to parts of a computer decrease its performance. So, it is necessary to know every part, as well as its functions and locations.

The Assembly of all these parts is very complex. Nowadays, the computer has evolved into an integral part of human life. In this article, we will see all the main parts of computer charts with their names and their diagrams.

Parts of Computer Pictures

Parts of Computer, Names, Functions, and Diagram

Computer Parts Names

External Parts of Computer Names

  • Monitor
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Web Camera
  • Speakers
  • Microphone/Mike
  • Headphone
  • Printer
  • Scanner
  • Pendrive/USB Flash Drive
  • UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)
  • Power Cord

Internal Parts of Computer Names

  • CPU/Processor (Central Processing Unit)
  • Hard Drive
  • Motherboard
  • Sound Card
  • Network Card
  • RAM
  • Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)
  • Fan

Computer Parts & Functions


The monitor, one of the main parts of a computer system, is also known as a Virtual Display Unit. It comprises glass, circuitry, an adjustment button, power supplies, and more.

The video card is inside the monitor, which displays the images, video, and text. The adjustment button on the monitor adjusts the brightness.

In the early days, the monitor had a CRT (Cathode ray tube) display, which was very heavy and bulky. Nowadays, light and thin display monitors are available and are known as flat panel displays.

Apart from these, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) and LED (Light Emitting Diode) displays are the most common displays in the market.

Read More- 20 Main Types of Monitor: Complete Guide with Names, Functions & Pictures


The keyboard is the primary input device that gives different inputs to the computer. So we can communicate and interact with the computer.

The keyboard looks and works the same as a traditional typewriter. However, the main difference is that the keyboard has some extra keys and looks different.

Generally, there are two types of keyboards in the market. The mechanical and membrane types can be wired or wireless. A typical keyboard consists of alphabetical, numerical, unique, number, and arrow keys.

With these keys, we give instructions to the computer to populate the data or give instructions to do specific tasks.

The material of the keys and keyboard body is plastic. Specific letters and words are written to know their use and function on each key.

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A mouse is another input device that directly interacts with a computer system. A mouse is a pointing device and uses the “Point to Click “approach.

The primary function of the mouse is to move the pointer on the screen and select/open the folder on the computer by clicking the buttons.

A typical mouse has three left, right, and middle scroll buttons. Some new generation mice have more than three buttons, which has a unique function.

Generally, the mouse is divided into two types: mechanical and optical. The mechanical mouse uses a ball and scroll technology to move the cursor. In contrast, the optical mouse uses laser technology to move the cursor.

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Out of all the main parts of a computer, the webcam is yet another. The primary function of the webcam is to capture images and videos and send them to the computer in digital format.

A webcam differs from a digital camera because it requires a computer connection to perform its actions.

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Speakers are optional parts of the computer. These speakers connect to a computer via USB to output audio while watching movies or listening to songs.

This speaker is attached to the sound card, which converts electromagnetic waves into audio waves. This speaker also has an amplifier that adjusts the volume of sound.

As it is not an integral part of the computer, we can use different speakers per the manufacturer’s requirements. Nowadays, computers and laptops are coming into the market with inbuilt speakers.


The microphone is another external part of the computer. The primary function of the microphone is to give voice input to the computer system. This microphone comes in various sizes and shapes.

We can also connect to the computer when we need to insert audio into the presentation or broadcasting and voice conferencing.


The headphone is the device from which we hear the sound. When talking on the call, we convey our message to the other person through the mike, but with headphones, we listen to the other person.

It is an output device of the computer. As per the requirement, we can adjust the sound intensity. It helps to make our online conversation easy and effective.

In the market, there are various companies making headphones. Each has a different design and features.

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The printer is an output device connected to a computer system to print data on paper. It takes electronic data from the computer and takes an exact copy of that document in monochrome (Black and white ) or colored format. The printer may be wired or wireless.


The scanner is the device that scans physical documents such as pdf or images and reads each character on the paper using optical technology. After studying and reading, all the data is sent to a computer system for further manipulation.

The scanner is just the opposite of the printer. It is an input computer device that converts physical documents into a digital format like JPEG, PDF, and more. Photo scanners, Flatbed scanners, and handheld scanners are typical examples of scanners.

Pendrive/USB Flash Drive

Pendrive is a portable data-storing device that can be carried wherever we want. It is small in dimension, and we can place it in our pockets. We connect it to the USB port of the motherboard to access the data. Without any additional power source, we can access the Pendrive through the USB port.

We can back up the essential data and any other data in Pendrive. It helps transfer the data from one computer to another by simply inserting the Pendrive.

Various Pendrive sizes are available, starting from 2GB onward. Adata, HP, SanDisk, and Sony are the best manufacturers.


UPS is an Uninterruptable Power Supply. It is a hardware device that gives power backup to our computer system when the primary electricity source does not supply the power.

UPS consists of a battery inside its cover, which keeps our system running for a shorter period to protect against data loss.

The main advantage of UPS is that we get enough time to save our data and correctly switch the system. When electricity cuts suddenly without UPS, there is a chance of losing the data.

Power Cord

The power cord is the primary cable that provides power to the computer. The power cord connects one end to the UPS and the other to the computer case. Additional wires connect the printer, scanner, and monitor to the computer.

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Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The complete form of the CPU is the Control Processing Unit, the computer’s brain. CPU consists of the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU ) and Control Unit ( CU), which perform and control arithmetic and logical functions.

The processor performs all the data processing on the input devices to obtain the desired result.

The modern computer comes with a multi-core processor (Multiple CPU is a single chip), which helps increase processing power. It also helps multitask operations in the computer system.

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Hard Drive

A hard disk is a non-volatile data storage device that stores various kinds of data, retrieves it per need, and maintains it even after it turns off.

HDD is one example of a hard disk that is available in laptops, mobiles, and other electronics to store software programs, operation systems, and other files using the magnetic disk.

These hard drives connect with the motherboard through parallel or series ATA or Small Computer System interfaces.


A motherboard is a circuit board that is integrated into the computer case. It helps to provide connectivity and communication between the CPU, RAM, and other computer hardware.

A motherboard is also called a mainboard. It consists of RAM, ROM, CPU, sound card, video card, input/output ports, network card, and storage devices.

Sound Card

A sound chip is usually installed on the motherboard to generate sound output. For better sound output, it is necessary to have a great and high-quality sound card.

A sound card is an expansion card on the computer system’s motherboard via a USB port or PCI slot.

The sound card also requires a proper driver and software installed on the computer system to control and produce high-quality sound through headphones, speakers, and a mic.

Network Card

The Network Interface Card is the hardware component that connects the computer to the computer networks. Its other names are network adapter, LAN, network interface, and controller.

It uses LAN to communicate with the local network. However, for the large-scale network, it uses Internet Protocol for communication. NIC uses a transceiver to transfer parallel data into serial data.

Each card has its unique name and number, like the MAC number, which differs as per the manufacturer.


RAM is the Random Access Memory, the short-term memory of the computer. It stores the processor data temporarily and is faster to access than the hard drive and other storage devices. The RAM data gets erased when we turn off the device.

The computer, laptop, and mobile selection depend mainly on RAM capacity. It is necessary for efficient performance and not getting your device to lag.

Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is an electronic circuit displaying high-quality images and graphics. It is done by simply performing the arithmetic calculation.

As we know, the Graphics Processing Unit helps in the processing of 2D data and decoding of 3D data such as videos and animation. The Graphics Processing Unit is called a Graphics or Video or Display Card.

The higher the memory of the Graphics Processing Unit, the higher the visual effect on a computer screen. Professional gamers widely use this high-quality graphics card.


The fan, an integral part of the computer system, plays a significant role in boosting internal airflow to reduce the risk of overheating. Overheating can harm the critical hardware components of a computer.

Its effective cooling mechanisms prolong the operational longevity of computer parts. The Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) regulates the velocity of the fan.

A computer system contains a variety of fans, each designed to meet specific thermal management requirements. These include Central Processing Unit (CPU) fans, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) fans, and Power Supply Unit (PSU) fans.

These diverse fans collectively contribute to the comprehensive thermal management strategy of the computer system.

Conclusion on Parts of a Computer

We all know computers change the life of human beings. Every advancement in computer parts makes life easier by lower effort. With time and innovations, computer parts are becoming smaller and increasing in efficiency. Each part plays a good role in creating a computer supercomputer.

Related Posts to – Computer & Gadgets

Which three parts of the computer receive input?

The MICR, Barcode Reader, and Touch Screen receive input. Also, three computer parts that receive input are the keyboard, mouse, and Modem.

What is the full form of computer parts?

Web Camera
Pendrive/USB Flash Drive
UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)
Power Cord
CPU/Processor (Central Processing Unit)
Hard Drive
Sound Card
Network Card
RAM (Random Access Memory)
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

What are the parts of a computer?

The main parts of a computer are a monitor, mouse, keyboard, camera, headphones, CPU, hard drive, RAM, speaker, mike, power cord, motherboard, network card, graphics processing card, etc.

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