A bicycle is a human-powered or motor-powered assisted, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. Its invention is the start of the revolution in the transport industry. Before the bicycle, there was no such suitable medium for transport. Its basic design was the same from an early age, but nowadays, there are some changes in the structure. So there are changes in the arrangement of the parts of a bicycle from a safety point of view. But how many of you know the parts of the bicycle? Of course, we know, but not all of them. So before buying the bicycle, you need to know the bicycle parts and location. It will help you to get a good quality bicycle that fulfills your needs. This article helps you to understand the bicycle anatomy and its names & functions.
Nowadays, riding a bicycle is the key to good health. It helps to make you fit and healthy.
Bicycle Parts Diagram
Bicycle Parts Names
- Handlebar tape
- Bar ends
- Bar plugs or end caps
- Side view mirror
- Brake lever
- Bicycle brake cable
- Steerer tube
- Shock absorber
- Fork end
- Hub dynamo
- Hub gear
- Skirt guard
- Valve stem or simply valve
- Fender or mudguard
- Down tube
- Bottom bracket
- Bottle cage
- Crankset or chainset
- Chain tensioner
- Inner tube
- Jockey wheel or Pulley wheel
- Derailleur hanger
- Head tube
- Saddle or Seat
- Seat rails
- Seat lug
- Seat tube
- Seat bag
- Lock ring
Parts of a Bicycle and their Functions
It is a metallic pipe connected to the fork through the steerer. It is perpendicular to the fork and allows for steering of the front wheel as per the requirement. The handlebar holds a bell and brake levers.
These are the tape on the handle, which provides the grip to drive the bicycle.
These are the extensions on the handlebar. We can give them different shapes to improve their look and try multiple hand positions as per our comfort.
Bar Plugs or End Caps
These are the end caps to the handlebar to protect the dust, water, or other particles that enter the handlebar.
Side View Mirror
The function of the mirrors is to get visibility of the back portion or see the other riders coming from the back. There are right-side and left-side mirrors.
It is a mechanism of plates and gears. Its function is to create a sound to give a signal to any person in front of you. So you will get a space to travel in a crowdy area.
It is for the actuation purpose of the brake. Its material is plastic or metal.
Bicycle Brake Cable
The cable passes through the brake handle to the wheel braking mechanism. Its material is steel and has a plastic cover to protect it from dust and water.
It is a metallic bracket that attaches the steerer tube of a fork to the handlebar.
The steerer tube is on the top of the fork, inserted through the frame to steer the bicycle handle.
The headset is the portion in the frame bearing on the front interface between the frame and the front steerer tube.
A fork is the front part of the bicycle that comes with pair of tubes to place the wheel between it. It is connected to the handle and allows it to steer as per the road direction.
Its function is to absorb the shocks when we ride on bumpy roads. These shock absorbers are either available on the front wheels or rear wheels. In today’s bicycles, shock absorbers are available on both wheels.
It is the end part of the fork where we fit the front wheel axle.
A wheel is the assembly of the tire, tube, valve, rim, spokes, and hub.
It is the middle portion of the wheel that contains the bearing. Also, it has hole driller flanges on the periphery attached to connect spokes.
It is a generator inside the hub to develop power and supply it to the various parts of a bicycle.
It is a gearbox or gears inside the hub to get the variation in speed.
The bearing is the part of the wheel and pedal assembly to reduce friction and gives smooth rotating motion. So we can travel a long distance with less effort.
It is a metallic rod that holds the bicycle wheel, and the wheel rotates around the rod. Axle material should have a higher strength to bear the rotating, friction and jerk load due to the rough riding of riders on bumpy roads.
Rim is a metallic circular frame of the wheel to attach the tire. It is made of robust material and strengthened by the spokes. It holds the tire to get a good grip while riding the bicycle.
It is a device fitted over the rear wheel of a bicycle to prevent a long skirt, coat, or other trailing clothes or luggage from catching in the wheel or the gap between the rim and the brakes.
Spokes are the metallic rod that connects the rim with the hub. It is threaded from one end and connected to the rim, whereas another end is swaged to form the head and connected to the hub. Typically rim has 36 spokes.
The nipple is a nut attached to the rim to hold the spokes.
It is made of rubber with metal wires inside it. Due to the metallic wires, it gets good strength to sit on the rim and get a good grip. Inside the tire, the tube is present and filled with air.
Due to the better grip of the tire on the rim, the tub does not come outside. Tire gives better friction between roads for getting better stability while riding.
Valve Stem or Simply Valve
Its function is to add and release the air inside the tube. Two types are commonly used: Presta and Schrader.
The function of the brake is to slow the speed of the bicycle. Motion to stop the bicycle transfers from the brake lever on the handle through the cable to the disc or rim brake.
When we press the brake lever, brake pads apply the pressure on the rim in case of rim brake and on the disc in case of disc brake to stop the bicycle. A drum brake is a choice for the rear wheel brake.
Fender or Mudguard
The function of the fender is to protect the rider from mud and wastewater. It is a curve shape and made of metal or plastic. There are front and rear mudguards available.
It connects the head tube with the lower bracket. Its angle is necessary to distribute the stress and improve the aesthetics.
It is a fabrication of the tubes that help attach all the remaining bicycle parts. With this frame, we can connect the front steering assembly, middle transmission assembly, seat assembly, and rear-wheel assembly. It is a central part of the bicycle.
This tube has enough strength to bear the whole load of the bicycle with stress.
In the modern frame, the suspension is inbuilt to absorb the vibrations due to heavy riding.
It is a bracket at the bottom of the bicycle frame that fits inside the bottom bracket shell. It holds the bearing system and spindle with a crankset.
The spindle comes out from the bearing to connect the crankset. The outer bearing cage is inside the bottom bracket portion, and the inside cage holds the spindle.
A basket is an arrangement to store the cargo or luggage during a ride. Its material is metal or plastic and also depends on the manufacturer.
It is a metallic or plastic cage in the bicycle for holding a water bottle.
Crankset or Chainset
The crankset is the assembly of the crank and chainring.
It is a metal and rubber member connected to the crank arm. When we apply the pressure on the pedal through our foot, the crankarm transfer this motion to the rear wheel through the transmission (Chain).
It is a round ring of steel attached to the crank. Over the chainring, the chain passes and transfers the motion to the rear wheel.
It is an assembly of rollers, plates, and pins to transmit the motion from our legs to the rear wheel. It connects the rear wheel with the front sprocket to run the bicycle. Chain material should have enough strength to bear the high load by the rider.
It is a metallic cover on the transmission system (Front sprocket, chain, rear sprocket) of the bicycle. There are two types.
- Fully enclosed- It covers the whole transmission system & sometimes contains oil.
- Semi-enclosed- It partly covers the whole transmission system.
With chainguard, we can protect our clothes from fouling in the transmission.
It is a metallic part that connects the bottom bracket to the read-wheel axle frame.
Its function is to maintain the tension in the chain to get a good grip while riding. Sometimes repetitive use of the bicycle chain becomes loose. So to avoid any accident, a chain tensioner helps to protect.
Chaintug moves to maintain the tension in the chain.
It is a sprocket assembly of different sizes that attaches to the rear wheel hub.
It is a rubber tube inside the tire of the wheel. It is filled with air to get a better grip and comfortable driving on the street.
Freehub is a ratchet assembly that holds the cassette and allows the bicycle to run without pedaling.
Sprockets are threaded rotating members connected to the rear wheel. When we need to run the cycle, we apply the pressure by the legs on the crankset, and the teeth of the sprocket engage with an outer cage to get a motion.
When the cycle runs due to its weight and road inclination, the sprocket disengages with the outer cage threads to run ideally.
Jockey Wheel or Pulley Wheel
Jockey wheels are the small sprockets on the rear derailleur to guide the chain while riding.
It is a cable-actuated lever assembly that moves the chain in different cassette sprockets to get the variation in speed with less effort.
It is a hanger of the derailleur, which helps to operate the derailleur.
Peg is the additional arrangement on the rear wheel axle to rest the foot of the extra rider. It comes 6 inches out from the axle and is available on both sides. Its material is strong metal to sustain the load of the additional rider.
Dropout is at the U shape notch at the rear side of the frame where the rear wheel is attached. With this, we can remove the rear wheel by loosening the nut.
It is the top horizontal tube on the bicycle frame on which the headset fixes.
Saddle or Seat
The saddle is a rubber platform on which the rider sits. It is present on the top of the frame. The seat gives comfort to the rider to maintain balance while riding the bicycle. It is available in various shapes and designs.
Seat rails are the metallic framework over which the saddle covering is stretched. The seat post attaches to the seat rails using a clamp.
These are the point of attachment to clamp the seat post securely.
It is a vertical tube in a bicycle frame running from the seat to the bottom bracket.
It is a small storage accessory hung from the back of a seat
Seat mounts on the seat post. It slides inside the seat tube to adjust the height as per the requirement.
The rack is the additional arrangement on the rear side of the seat. It is also called a carrier.
These are the indicating lights to indicate the turning signal to the other riders.
A kickstand is an attachment on the bicycle to stand up in any location on its own. It is usually fixed to the bottom of the bottom bracket. We can fold and open it as per the requirement.
The function of the locknut is to prevent the loosening of the nut due to the vibration.
It is a metallic ring that helps to retain part in its place. There is variation in their design as per the geometry of the components.
It shields the various parts and assemblies from dirt and contamination.
It is a power source of the bicycle, which transforms the rotating power of the wheel into electricity. It is also known as a generator.
The function of the gusset is to increase the strength of the existing structure or frame by welding plates. In the bicycle, plates are welded to the framing to improve stability.
These are the attachment on the bicycle to reflect the light. When light falls on the reflector, it glows and indicates the others people the existence of the bicycle rider.
It is an additional electronic arrangement to measure the speed, distance, and heart rate.