Overview of Car Engine Parts
Car Engine Parts are the most common term for the Automobile & Mechanical Engineer. The car engine is kind of heart for the car. The main function of the car engine is to generate power from the fuel to move the car. To achieve this, several individual parts work in the car engine. Each car engine part plays an important role. We can say the Engine is the main part of the car or any other automobile. But the design of the engine is complex to understand. These parts require in good condition for proper working.
Today’s advanced technology making the engine more efficient to work. In this article, we are going to see the car engine parts names with pictures. diagrams, construction, working, material composition, and use.
Car Engine Parts Names
All car engine parts names with pictures are listed below. Each part with its function, constructional details, working, and materials are explained in detail.
The engine block is the main supporting structure of the Engine where combustion action takes place. It is made by the casting as a single unit. In most cases, cast iron & Aluminium alloy is the main choice for the engine block.
Engine block contains 6, 8, 12, or 16 main holes for fixing & reciprocating pistons in it. They having various small holes through which water & oil flow from pipes to cool & lubricate the engine.
Engine block holds pistons, crank, crankshaft, crankpin, connecting rod, and other parts in it. These parts convert the reciprocating action of the piston into rotary motion.
The cylinder head is attached to the engine block from the top side, with help of a gasket and bolts. This gasket prevents the leakage & losses of the gases & heat from the cylinder. The cylinder head provides an inlet & outlet for the air and exhaust gases. It is made in a single unit by the casting process.
On the cylinder head, assembly of the valves, valve springs, pushrods, lifter, camshaft, cams, rocker arm presents. This assembly regulates the airflow or air+petrol flow inside the cylinder during the intake stroke and helps to remove exhaust gases from the cylinder during the exhaust stroke.
Cylinder block can be further classified into different types depending upon the valve and port configuration: Loop flow type, Offset cross-flow type, and Inline cross flow type.
The piston is the cylindrical component guided in the engine block with crank & connecting rod to reciprocate in the cylinder. Pistons are strong enough to withstand the high temperature generated due to combustion. So, these pistons are mainly made by casting or forging the cast iron or aluminum alloys.
The function of the piston is to compress the air or air-fuel mixture into the cylinder. Pressure energy generates due to this fuel combustion, and the piston converts this energy into useful mechanical power. Piston transfer this power through connecting rod and crankshaft to run the vehicle.
Piston reciprocates very fast into the cylinder. So it is not solid completely. It is made with a precise tolerance with a high finish to reciprocate into the cylinder.
Generally, the piston is not made with a tight fit or loose fit to reciprocate inside the cylinder. Because due to tight fit, there are chances to stuck the piston into the cylinder. And due to loose fit, it may leak the gases from the cylinder. To prevent these losses, piston rings are using with the piston.
Piston rings give a great sealing fit between piston & cylinder. These piston rings are manufactured in cast iron with a fine grain structure with high elasticity. Due to that, pistons rings are not affected by high heat.
There are three types of piston rings.
- Temperature Ring- In a Car engine, high temperature develops due to the combustion of fuel inside the cylinder. The function of the temperature ring is to resist high temperatures.
- Compression/Pressure Ring- Due to the creation of high temperature, it develops high pressure. This pressure ring is designed to bear this high pressure.
- Oil Control Ring- This ring prevents oil leakage between piston and cylinder.
The combustion chamber is the area present inside the cylinder. This area is defined by the position and size of the piston in the cylinder. This air-fuel mixture comes from the inlet valve & gets ignited.
When the piston moves from the Bottom Dead Centre to the Top Dead Centre, it causes compressing the air-fuel mixture. Once the piston starts reaching its TDC, the spark plug ignites the mixture & produces energy. This energy pushes the piston to BDC.
The same process happens in the Diesel engine. But instead of the air-fuel mixture, only air comes into the combustion chamber and is compressed to high temperature. Instead of the spark plug, the fuel injector injects diesel into it & gets it to burn to produce energy.
Combustion of the fuel depends upon the compression ratio. It is different for SI & CI engines.
Gudgeon pin is also known as wrist pin. It is hollow in the construction. It is using to connect the piston to the connecting rod to transfer motion. Gudgeon pin is imposing by the load due to reciprocating motion & temperature due to rotation of the connecting rod and piston.
In the car engine, the gudgeon pin is made with the forged steel alloy or Titanium Pin (Low Density). It is designed to bear the shear & bending stresses.
Connecting rods are using to connect the piston with the crankshaft to transfer reciprocating motion. They are made in such a way that, small part connects to the piston & the large part connects to the crank. A Gudgeon pin connects a small part, and a crankpin connects a large part.
Connecting rod is the part that transmits piston motion to the crank. Later, this motion is converted by crankshaft into rotary motion. Connecting rod made up of forged steel.
Connecting rod is connected to the crankshaft by the crank with the help of a crank pin. Crank helps to convert and transfer reciprocating motion into rotary motion.
The crankshaft is supported by the engine block inside it. The reciprocating motion generated by the piston due to the combustion of fuel gets transfer via connecting rod into the rotary motion of the crank.
As we know, the crank is part of the crankshaft. Hence, rotary motion is directly transferred to propel the automobile. Crank is made by the forging process of steel alloy.
The oil pan is the bottom half of the crankcase. Another name of the oil pan is oil sump. All car engine parts require lubrication. It is mainly for the collection of lubricating oil. After the lubrication of the engine parts, it collects into the sump.
The oil pan and the lower part of the cylinder block together are called the crankcase. It contains a crank & crankshaft. The main function of it is to provide bearing support to the crankshaft. The crankcase prevents the engine parts from dust particles. It is made up of grey cast iron or aluminum.
As we know, the speed & torque produced by the car engine is not uniform in nature. Due to that vehicle will not run at a uniform speed. So, it will affect the life of the other parts due to fluctuation. Flywheel is used to avoid this.
There are two main functions of the flywheel.
- It stores the energy generated in the power stroke to use in the preparatory stroke.
- It makes the rotation of the crankshaft uniform.
The flywheel is mounted on the crankshaft. It balances the speed of the vehicle.
Depending upon the number of cylinders and the construction of the engine, flywheel size gets varies.
Valves, valve springs & rocker arm
On the top of the cylinder head, two openable holes are there for inlet & outlet purposes. From inlet air-fuel or air comes inside the combustion chamber & from the outlet, exhaust gases drain out. It is regulated by the valve & valve spring mechanism.
This valve & valve spring are operated by the rocker arm. As per the timing of the camshaft rocker arm push the valves to open & close.
When these valves are in a close position, it gives very tight sealing to avoid losses or leakage.
Cam is the egg shape round steel plate mounted on the camshaft. The main function of the cam is to control inlet and outlet valve timing. This all is depending on its shape. Cam is an integral part of camshafts. When the camshaft rotates, as per the design of the shaft, the cam rotates & lifts the rocker arm to push the valve to open. Cam is made of steel alloy to resist friction.
The location of the camshaft varies as per the type of vehicle or design. In some vehicles, it mounts in a cylinder head, or in some cases, it mounts in an engine block. They are guided by a series of bearing.
It is a shaft on which cams are mounted at a specific distance to open valves. The camshaft is driven by car engine speed to rotate. It regulates the opening & closing timing of the inlet & exhaust valves. Its material is a steel alloy.
The intake manifold is the series of pipes connected to supply air-fuel mixture or air into the combustion chamber. In the diesel engine, instead of an air-fuel mixture, only air is supplied into the combustion chamber.
The exhaust manifold is the same as the inlet, but it is for draining exhaust gases generated after the combustion. The function of the exhaust manifold is the same in SI & CI engine.
In the car engine parts, the gasket is the important part. It gives airtight sealing between
- The engine block & cylinder head.
- Inlet manifold with the cylinder head.
- Outlet manifold with the cylinder head.
Due to the gasket, there are no chances of leakage or any loss.
A spark plug is the main part of the Self Ignition Engine. And spark plug must operate under the most severe conditions. When the air-fuel mixture comes from the inlet valve, then it compresses inside the combustion chamber. Once the piston going to reach TDC, the spark plug ignites the mixture to produce energy. Without a spark plug, the SI engine does not work.
Fuel Injector is the primary part of the Compression Ignition Engine. When air comes from the inlet valve into combustion, then it gets compressed with the help of a piston. Once the piston going to reach TDC, the fuel injector injects the fuel. Due to the high temperature of the air, it burns to generate energy.
1. Engine block
2. Cylinder head
4. Connecting rod
10. Spark plug (SI Engine)
11. Fuel Injector (CI Engine)