5 Essential Air Conditioner Parts: Names, Functions, and Diagrams

Overview of Parts of an Air Conditioner

As we all know, due to the increase in the temperature of the earth’s environment, the summer season is becoming very extreme. Due to that, it is hard to live. But the invention of the air conditioning system is helping to maintain the temperature to get rid of summer heat. The air conditioner cools the temperature inside the room by absorbing the heat from the room environment and controlling the humidity. To get the cold atmosphere inside the room, various parts of an air conditioner work independently. Each ac part has a different function and contributes to creating the cooling cycle system. These parts may get damaged due to high electricity supply or technical issues. So, it is necessary to know the air conditioner parts to do preventative maintenance after every interval.

Air Conditioner Parts Diagram

Air Conditioner Parts, Names, Functions, and Diagram

Parts of an Air Conditioner

  • Refrigerant
  • Compressor
  • Condenser Coil
  • Expansion Valve
  • Evaporator Coil
  • Dryer

Air Conditioner Parts and Functions


It is a medium flow through the refrigeration system and carries the heat in different forms. It absorbs the heat from the high-temperature medium and exerts it on the high-temperature medium.

Some examples of refrigerants include sulfur dioxide, ammonia, methyl chloride, carbon dioxide, and ether.


The function of the compressor is to compress the vapor refrigerant that comes from the evaporator. Due to that, the pressure and temperature of refrigerant increase.

The temperature of the refrigerant that comes out from the compressor is higher than the atmospheric temperature.

Different types of compressors are used in refrigeration systems. These are rotary, reciprocating, multi-stage, and hermetically sealed.

Condenser Coil

The function of the condenser is to reject heat into the atmosphere while passing through the condenser coils. During this phase of heat ejection, vapor refrigerant starts converting into liquid. It happens due to the condenser coils.

As the vapor starts flowing through the condenser coils, it transfers heat to the coils and begins transforming into liquid. Sometimes, it uses fans or cooling fins to cool the vapor.

Condenser capacity depends on the type of material of the pipe, the amount of contact of vapor to the wall of the coil, and the surrounding temperature or temperature difference.

If the coil material has high thermal conductivity, it cools vapor refrigerant fast. If the pipe diameter is proper, then the vapor refrigerant makes good contact with the pipe wall to cool. And if the surrounding temperature is less or cool, then vapor refrigerant cools very fast.

These condensers can be air-cooled, water-cooled, or evaporative condensers.

Expansion Valve

The function of the expansion valve is to reduce the pressure of the liquid refrigerant that comes from the condenser. Due to pressure drops, the liquid refrigerant temperature decreases lower than the room temperature and starts flowing to the evaporator. 

The expansion valve also regulates the flow of refrigerant to the evaporator. As per the load on the evaporator, it supplies the refrigerant. 

Evaporator Coil

The function of the evaporator is to absorb the heat from the room or area to cool. As the temperature of the liquid refrigerant is smaller than the room temperature, heat from the room starts to be absorbed by the refrigerant. Due to that, we get a cold environment inside the room.

In the evaporator coils, due to absorption of the heat from the room, the refrigerant begins getting boiled and converts into vapor. But the temperature of the vapor remains lower.

It is due to any heat absorbed being converted into latent heat as boiling proceeds.


It is an extra safety provided to the air conditioner. There are chances of entering a liquid refrigerant into the compressor, which causes damage to the compressor. So to avoid this damage, the dryer is used in between the compressor and evaporator to convert the liquid refrigerant into vapor.

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