Air Conditioner Parts, Names, Functions, and Diagram

The air conditioner cools the temperature inside the room by absorbing the heat from the room environment and controlling the humidity. To get the cold atmosphere inside the room, various parts of air conditioner work independently. Each part has a different function and contributes to making the cooling cycle system. The air conditioner parts may get damaged due to high electricity supply or technical issues. So, it is necessary to know each part to do the preventative maintenance after some time.

Air Conditioner Parts Diagram

Air Conditioner Parts, Names, Functions, and Diagram

Air Conditioner Parts Names

  • Refrigerant
  • Compressor
  • Condenser Coil
  • Expansion Valve
  • Evaporator Coil
  • Dryer

Air Conditioner Parts and Functions


It is a medium flow through the refrigeration system and carries the heat in different forms. It absorbs the heat from the high-temperature medium and exerts the heat on the high-temperature medium.

Sulfur dioxide, ammonia, methyl chloride, carbon dioxide, and ether are some examples of refrigerants.


The function of the compressor is to compress the vapor refrigerant that comes from the evaporator. Due to that, the pressure and temperature of refrigerant increase.

The temperature of the refrigerant that comes out from the compressor is higher than the atmospheric temperature.

Different types of compressors are used in the refrigeration system. These are rotary, reciprocating, multi-stage, and hermetically sealed.

Condenser Coil

The function of the condenser is to reject heat into the atmosphere while passing through the condenser coils. During this phase of heat ejection, vapor refrigerant starts converting into liquid. It happens due to the condenser coils.

As the vapor starts flowing through the condenser coils, it transfers heat to the coils and starts converting into liquid. Sometimes it uses fans or cooling fins to cool the vapor.

Condenser capacity depends on the type of material of the pipe, amount of contact of vapor to the wall of the coil, and surrounding temperature or temperature difference.

If the coil material has high thermal conductivity, it cools vapor refrigerant very fast. If the pipe diameter is right then the vapor refrigerant makes good contact with the pipe wall to get cool. And if the surrounding temperature is less or cool then vapor refrigerant cools very fast.

These condensers can be air-cooled, water-cooled, or evaporative condensers.

Expansion Valve

The function of the expansion valve is to reduce the pressure of the liquid refrigerant that comes from the condenser. Due to pressure drops, the liquid refrigerant temperature decreases lower than the room temperature and starts flowing to the evaporator. 

The expansion valve also regulates the flow of refrigerant to the evaporator. As per the load on the evaporator, it supplies the refrigerant. 

Evaporator Coil

The function of the evaporator is to absorb the heat from the room or area to cool. As the temperature of the liquid refrigerant is less than the room temperature, heat from the room starts absorbed by the refrigerant. Due to that, we get a cold environment inside the room.

In the evaporator coils, due to absorption of the heat from the room, refrigerant starts getting boil and converts into vapor. But the temperature of the vapor remains lower.

It is due to any heat absorbed being converted into the latent heat as boiling proceeds.


It is an extra safety provided to the air conditioner. There are chances of entering a liquid refrigerant into the compressor, which causes damage to the compressor. So to avoid this damage, the dryer is used in between the compressor and evaporator to convert the liquid refrigerant into the vapor.

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