An airplane is a fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller, or rocket engine. We all know it is the best transportation medium nowadays. With the help of airplanes, we can reduce the time for travel, reach any place in less time, and connect to the world very fast. The different parts of an airplane are manufactured precisely and assembled through bolts, welds, or rivets. Passenger safety is the prime concern, so airplane parts are tested various times before assembly. As per the type of application, different companies manufacture the planes, and their sizes, shapes, and wing configurations change. In this article, we will see all those parts, names & functions.
Parts of an Airplane Diagram
Names of Airplane Parts
- Landing Gear
The fuselage is one of the important parts of an airplane or aircraft. It is a long hollow tube made up of different materials. This fuselage is also called the body of the airplane.
The shape of the fuselage is wider on the front side, and it becomes more taper on the rear side of the airplane. It creates the airplane’s aerodynamic shape. The fuselage contains the pilot in front, while the passenger and crew members are at the rear.
The construction of the fuselage is different for different airplanes. The material for the fuselage also varies for other airplanes, which range from wood to welded tubes (Planes used in World War II).
Nowadays, to reduce the weight of the airplane and increase its strength and withstanding capacity of the airplane, aluminum tubes are the first choice of material in the fuselage.
Following are some examples of different types of fuselage construction.
- Truss Structure
- Semi-Monocoque Structure
The cockpit is the front area of the fuselage from where the pilot controls the whole airplane. It is also referred to as the flight deck. The cockpit houses the flight crew’s seating area, avionics, flight controls, and audio and radio communications.
Following are some components which include in the cockpit.
The instrumental panel gives information about the engine, airplane, and the aircraft’s circumstances, much like the dashboard to the pilot. Depending on the avionics (aviation electronics) installed in the aircraft, this information may be displayed on an interactive screen or utilizing the standard “6 Pack” for important facts.
These are the control handles for lifting and landing the plane. It helps to stabilize the plane in one direction while landing on the runways.
There are two seats in the cockpit, one for the co-pilot and one for the pilot.
Rudder pedals are used for both steering on the ground during a taxi and for controlling yaw while in flight.
Systems for the aircraft, including hydraulics, electrical, fuel, and air conditioning, are located on the overhead panel.
Depending on the aircraft, side consoles are for communication equipment and documentation.
To produce the lift in a specific direction for the airplane depends on the wing. It is not only about producing lift, but we also have to control it by various parts of the wing, which are necessary to discuss.
Ailerons are situated on the trailing edge of the wing and aid in controlling a plane’s roll. It is one of the three main control surfaces that govern a plane, together with the elevator and rudder.
The pilot in the cockpit rotates at the left, the left aileron rises and decreases lift on that side, while the right aileron moves down, increasing lift on that side, causing that side to rise. As a result, the plane starts to roll to the left and turn.
The flaps are present at the trailing edge of the wing. The flaps produce greater lift and drag because they move symmetrically on each side, unlike ailerons. When aircraft speed is lower, such as during take-off and landing, the flaps frequently increase lift and lower stall speeds.
The wing tip of an airplane is curved upward and is known as a winglet. Winglets were developed to lessen the induced drag.
Slats are comparable to flaps but are only found at the leading edge of the wing, changing the form of the wing momentarily to increase lift.
Spoilers are employed to aid in the aircraft’s descent and limit the airfoil’s lift capacity. As a result, the aircraft can descend and lose altitude without increasing speed.
The primary function of an aircraft’s tail is to give stability and lift generation when combined with the wings. It consists of several components.
Horizontal Stabilizer and Elevator
The horizontal stabilizer prevents the nose of the aircraft from rising and falling (pitch). The elevator, one of the main flight controls, is the portion of the hinged horizontal stabilizer.
The elevators rise when the pilot in the cockpit pushes back on the yoke, increasing the force pushing down on the tail and raising the nose of the airplane. Lift increases by changing the angle of attack on the wings by raising the nose.
Rudder and Vertical Stabilizer
The aircraft weathervane into the relative wind thanks to the vertical stabilizer. It lessens the likelihood of the aircraft’s nose moving side to side (yaw).
The pilot uses the left and right pedals in the cockpit to control the rudder, which is the principal flight control on the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer.
The rudder moves to the left when the pilot depresses the left pedal, driving the nose to the yaw left and the tail to the right. The airplane makes coordinated turns when the rudder and ailerons are used together.
An airplane engine is called the power source of the plane because it provides power to fly. There are two types of engines in an airplane, which are reciprocating and turbine.
In reciprocating engines, air enters the engine and is compressed and mixed with fuel and an electric spark to ignite, with exhaust gases exiting the engine’s back through the manifold. The engine power spins the propeller, which creates thrust to move the plane forward.
In contrast, the compression of air, mixing of air and fuel, ignition, and exhaust all take place simultaneously in a turbine engine. In this case, power is produced by the engine’s air exhaust.
The propeller is at the front side of the engine, which converts rotational energy into thrust (forward-acting force). It causes the airplane to move in the forward direction.
The propeller contains 3 or more blades. Similar to the lift produced by an airfoil used as a lifting surface or wing, a high-pressure area forms at the back of the propeller’s airfoil, and low pressure creates at the front of the propeller.
The propeller generates thrust result of this pressure difference, moving the airplane forward.
Landing gears are at the belly of the fuselage. Its function is to take off and land safely and efficiently. The typical type of landing gear is the wheel and strut assembly found in many airplanes. But some landing gear is designed to float on water or skis in the snow.
General aviation frequently uses tricycle-style wheels, which have one wheel up front and two behind, or tailwheels, which have two wheels up front and one under the tail. This landing gear also includes a shock absorber for safe landing and take-off.
- 30 Important Parts of a Ship, Names, Functions & Diagram
- 30 Basic Parts of a Boat, their Names, Functions & Diagram
- 13 Important Parts of Canoe, their Names & Diagram
- 34 Important Parts of Motorcycle, their Names, Functions & Diagram