Ultimate Guide- 13 Electric Car Parts: Names, Functions & Diagram

What is Electric Vehicle?

Electric Vehicle is a vehicle that uses a battery to store electric power to propel one or more electric motors. Due to the use of electricity, EVs are pollution-free and environmentally friendly. The use of lithium-Ion batteries makes vehicles suitable for the long run. These batteries can charge using solar panels, electric power stations, or another source. Various electric car parts make the electric vehicle efficient to run on the road. Each electric vehicle component plays an important role.

Electric Vehicles are today’s need for all world to reduce pollution and carbon emissions. It is the best alternative to petrol & diesel vehicles.

How does Electric Car work?

When the driver presses the accelerator-

  1. The inverter receives the electrical power in the DC form from the battery and converts it into AC. 
  2. This AC is transferred to the electric motor and converted into mechanical energy.
  3. A transmission transfers this mechanical energy and regulates the desired rotating speed to run the vehicle on the road.

Also, the controller takes the electrical power from the battery to operate other electronic parts of the electric car.

Electric Vehicle Components

  • Electric Traction Motor
  • Reducer
  • Transmission
  • Battery
  • Traction Battery Pack
  • Battery Management System (BMS)
  • Battery Heating System
  • Onboard Charger
  • Charge Port
  • Electric Power Control Unit
  • Inverter
  • Low Voltage DC-DC Converter
  • Vehicle Control Unit

Electric Car Components and Functions

Electric Traction Motor

The function of the traction motor is to convert electric power into kinetic energy. It allows the vehicle to run on the road. There are different advantages to using electric motors.

  • Less Noise
  • Fewer Vibrations

When a new person drives an electric car for the first time, he can find the difference. These EVs are very smooth, comfortable, and noise-free to drive. There is ample space available in Electric vehicles as the EV powertrain is small compared to the Engine. 

These traction motor also acts as a generator to generate electricity. When we ride a car on a hill, electric motors draw electricity from the battery to generate kinetic energy to climb hills. 

But during downhill, electric motors are in the neutral condition, and car wheels drive the motors. These motors act as a generator and charge the battery.

It is known as Regenerative Braking System. It improves the efficiency of the vehicle & gives good battery backup during the long run.

In general, brushless DC motors using for EVs.

Reducer

The function of the reducer is to balance the RPM of the motor to the appropriate level. It is part of the transmission system and connects the motor to the wheel drive shaft.

As we know, the motor has a high RPM. So, it’s necessary to reduce RPM at the desired level to achieve effective output RPM. It’s done by the reducer. With a reducer, it becomes possible to achieve high torque.

Transmission

It converts the mechanical power of the motor and transfers it to the wheel to run the vehicle on the road. 

Battery

The battery acts as a power source for EVs. It stores the electrical energy to drive the motors. How long your vehicle travel depends on the battery capacity. The higher the capacity, the higher the ability to travel distance.

Using more batteries to increase the distance traveled by the vehicle is not the right way. It unnecessarily increases the weight and reduces the space available. Due to that, it decreases fuel economy and energy efficiency.

The best way to maximize the driving distance is to use compact and energy-efficient batteries. This battery has a high electrical storage capacity, compact, and is light in weight.

Recent innovations in lithium-ion batteries make them more efficient to store energy, and their discharge rate is less. These are compact and have a good life.

Traction Battery Pack

Each battery is connected to the other to form a single battery pack. It links all batteries to form a single unit to operate. In some vehicles, all batteries are equally distributed and arranged below the four seats and construct a traction battery pack.

Battery Management System

Battery Management System is for vehicles to use more than 2 batteries as energy storage. In EVs, thousands of short batteries using, and all need to be in good condition for better performance.

The function of the battery management system is to monitor the status of each battery and adjust the power status of each battery using a relay system.

It is built with each battery and connects all to get better efficiency. It allows all batteries to get operate as a single unit.

Battery Heating System

The function of the battery heating system is to maintain the ideal temperature of all batteries. There is variation in temperature as per weather and place. So it is necessary to have a battery heating system for better performance and good battery life. 

Onboard Charger

It converts Alternating Current from our home or any other place into Direct Current. It looks like a traditional inverter, but it is different in function. 

Charge Port

It is a port where a plug can be inserted to charge the vehicle. It connects the external power supply to the car.

Electric Power Control Unit

Electric Power Control Unit consists of an inverter, low voltage DC-DC converter, & vehicle control unit. It helps control the flow of electricity in the vehicle.

Inverter- The function of the inverter is to convert DC to AC. It is necessary to have AC to accelerate and decelerate the motor to run the vehicle. It improves the drivability of the car. Also, it converts AC into DC during regenerative braking and charging of batteries.

Low voltage DC-DC converter- It converts the high voltage electric power from the battery to the low voltage electric power and supplies it to the various electronics part of the car. All electronic part is not operating on the high Direct Current.

Vehicle Control Unit- It is a power-controlling unit of all vehicles. It controls the motor, A/C load management, regenerative braking, and electricity supply to all remaining electronic parts.

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