Types of Loads

What is Load?

Load is defined as it is a force exerted on the surface or body. When anybody is in its rest position, some forces have to apply to move. This amount of force is nothing but a load. The unit of the load is Kilogram, Newton, etc. But there are different types of loads that act in a different direction. Let’s see in detail.  

Types of Loads

Types of Loads

Vertical Loads

  • Dead Load
  • Live Load
  • Snow Load

Horizontal Load

  • Wind Load
  • Earthquake Load

Special Load

  • Erection Load
  • Soil Load
  • Flood Load

Vertical Loads

Vertical loads are the load’s acts in a downward direction. 

Dead Load

Dead loads are the stationary & permeant loads. These are the static load’s acts due to their self-weight of structure, material, equipment, etc. throughout the life span. 

Steel, concrete, bricks, cement, sand, fittings, wires, and more material require while building a house. These all come under the dead load.

After using this material, we cannot replace them frequently. These remain in their position throughout the life span & act as a dead load

Live Load

The name itself says that it is a real-time load that can vary & acts sudden. The frequency of load acting can change with time. 

In-house live load acts due to furniture, people, water, other equipment which can move from one place to another.

When the house is empty, the Live load is zero, but when a house with full of people, it acts and varies. 

Snow Load

Snow load is the load acts due to snow in the winter season. It depends on the design of the roof, surface area, the material of the roof. If the roof area is large, more snow accumulates on it & acts more load.

Snow load acts in some geographical locations because snowfall occurs in a few locations. Also, the magnitude of snow differs as per the location.

Horizontal Loads

Wind Load

Wind load is the wind blow acting on the building exerts some force on its elevation is called a wind load. It is the dominant force acting on a tall building. As per the building size, height, & design, it varies. 

Some of the buildings are tall, but the load acting on them is less. Some buildings are short, but the wind load acting on them is high. It is due to their building design. There is variation in the wind load as per the geographical location.

Wind crates 3 types of forces on the building.

  1. Uplift- Wind creates an uplift force by flowing under the roof. It is the same as an airplane lift.
  2. Shear- High wind causes tilting of the buildings.
  3. Lateral- High load causes pulling & pushing of building make structure to slide from the foundation.

So it is necessary to make a building design suitable for the local wind data & according to geographical conditions.

Earthquake Loads

It is a seismic excitation of land causing inertial forces acting on the building structure. It is a quick loading action that destroys the building. 

Earthquake loading is directly proportional to the mass of the building. The higher the mass, the higher are the chance of the collapsing building. 

It is a rear load acting due to uneven natural action inside the earth’s crust. 

Special Loads

Erection Load

Erection load is the load acting on a building due to the rigging & de-rigging of any material, structure, and other material. It is a temporary load act on the building. 

Soil Load

Soil load is a load that acts on the building foundation while making construction. It is necessary to consider the soil loading condition. If the soil of the construction area is not good, it may cause damage to the building. There are many chances of accidents.

Flood Load

It is a load caused due to floods. When floods occur, the water creates pressure on the building & structures. It is a natural load that happens rarely.

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