10 Main Generator Parts: Complete Guide with Names, Functions & Diagram

Many of you faced power cuts in your residential or corporate sectors. If a power cut happens, what do you or your organization do? Any ideas? Yes. We have a generator to generate electricity for residential homes or corporate offices. The generator generates the power by running the engine through the fuel, and the alternator generates the electricity. It consists of various generator parts such as an engine, alternator, voltage regulator, battery, control panel, frame, cooling exhaust, and lubrication systems. So, in this article, we will study parts of a generator’s anatomy, its names & functions.

Generator Parts Diagram

Diesel Generator Parts, Names, Functions & Diagram

Parts of Generator Names

  • Engine
  • Fuel System
  • Alternator
  • Voltage Regulator
  • Cooling System
  • Exhaust System
  • Lubrication System
  • Battery
  • Control Panel
  • Main Assembly Frame

Diesel Generator Parts and Functions


The engine is the most important and common part of all generators and automobiles. It converts the fuel energy into sustainable energy. It allows the vehicle to run or the platform to do its mechanical function.

In the generator, the function of the engine is to convert the fuel (Diesel. Hydrogen, natural gases, propane, and other) energy into mechanical energy to generate electricity.

While designing the engine for the generator, the input of fuel to the output mechanical energy ratio is considerably important. With this ratio, we can define the efficiency of the engine.

The engine aims to create maximum mechanical power (rotational motion) by running through diesel or any other power source.

The size of the engine is directly proportional to the amount of electricity generated. Of all the fuels, diesel is the typical fuel used in the generator.

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Fuel System

In the generator, fuel storage stores the fuel, and the pump supplies the fuel to the engine. When we start the engine, the fuel pump supplies the fuel through the pipes to the engine.

While passing the fuel to the engine, the fuel filter removes the debris and dirt from the fuel and then passes it to the engine and vice versa through pipes.

Fuel injectors inside the combustion chamber spray the fuel during power stroke into the combustion chamber to develop the power.

Due to this power, the piston reciprocates into the cylinder and transfers the reciprocating motion into rotational motion. The electrical system controls the activation of the fuel injector at the right time of the power stroke.


The alternator is the electricity-generating device that converts the rotary motion of the shaft into electricity. It consists of a stator and a rotor. The stator consists of copper wire coils, and the rotor is a magnetic rotating member.

When the engine turns ON, rotary motion comes to the alternator through the flywheel and rotates the rotor of the alternator. As the rotor is the magnetic member, it induces flux inside the stator coil, which causes electricity production.

The rate of electricity generation depends on the gap between the rotor and stator, the design of stator coils, and the alternator design. By minimizing the gap, the highest amount of electricity generation occurs.

Voltage Regulator

The function of the voltage regulator is to regulate the voltage produced by the alternator. There is a fluctuation in the voltage of the electrical current produced by the alternator.

As we all know, all electrical equipment is designed for specific voltage ratings. If we supply the electricity produced by the alternator directly to this electrical equipment, then they will not work.

Due to that, we are using a voltage regulator to regulate the voltage, which is in the range of the all-electrical equipment’s rating.

Cooling System

In the generator, many rotating parts are present, which generates heat inside the various assemblies of the generator.

Hence, there is a chance of heating the generator part and causing the brake to go down. To avoid that, a cooling system helps to cool these parts.

In a small generator, water is the cooling agent. However, in large generators, oil is used as a cooling medium. It gets heated by getting in contact with the generator parts and passes to the radiator to become cool. The processes repeat continuously when the generator is ON.

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Exhaust System

When fuel combustion happens inside the combustion chamber, exhaust gases develop inside the cylinder. These gases get drained through the exhaust system.

The exhaust system consists of a manifold, muffler, resonator, exhaust pipes, and tailpipe.

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Lubrication System

A lubrication system is necessary for any machine equipment if there is a rotating part. Generator parts consist of various rotating parts, including the engine.

Suppose we don’t have a lubrication system. In that case, friction causes the wear of the generator parts, and the efficiency of the generator is reduced.

So, to increase performance and efficiency, reduce maintenance, and ensure smooth working, a lubrication system is necessary.


The battery is the power storage device. When the alternator generates the electricity, it passes to the battery, where some chemical reaction occurs to store the electricity in it.

The battery can be of various types like lead acid, Lithium-ion, or more.

Control Panel

It is a monitoring and controlling part of the generator consisting of various switches, buttons, and displays. The operator can see the condition of different generator parts and regulate them as per the requirement.

Monitoring and controlling devices of the generator are the engine, engine parts, engine speed, alternator, battery, various gauges, electrical switches and sensors, coolant temperature, exhaust and lubrication system, and more.

Due to the control panel, we will get to know the problem with the generator. So we can solve it to achieve good efficiency of the generator.

We can also start the generator automatically and shut it down when there is no need for its use.

Main Assembly Frame

It is the base frame of the generator, which gives the clamping location to all generator parts on the main frame engine, alternator, battery, exhaust system, and other parts of the generator mounts.

This frame sits on the floor and prevents contact between generator parts and the ground. It also helps to ensure the generator is grounded or earthed.

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