Guide to Learn Parts of a Step/Extension Ladder: Names & Diagram

For every human being, it is not possible to get any item that is far away from his height. As per his height, he can reach the object. But, if it is not reachable, then what is the solution? Its solution is the ladder. As we know, a ladder plays a very vital role in human life. In the market, there is a variety of ladders available. But many people don’t know the parts of the ladder and their uses. These parts of a ladder are assembled and placed on a flat surface to reach any item. As per the type of use, we can select it. We will see ladder anatomy, names, and diagrams in this article.

Parts of Ladder Diagram

Parts of Ladder, Names & Diagram

Ladder Parts

Step Ladder Parts

  • Top Cap
  • Rear Side Rails
  • Front Side Rails
  • Steps
  • Spreaders
  • Feet

Extension Ladder Parts

  • Fly Section
  • Base Section
  • Rope & Pulley Section
  • Rungs
  • Rung Locks

Parts of Step Ladder

Top Cap

It is the top portion of the ladder, which holds the front and rear rails with each other. It is a flat portion mainly to support the operator. In modern step ladders, caps are available to place various tools.

Rear Side Rails

This rail is also known as a non-climbing rail. Its function is to give stability to the ladder while climbing. In old step ladders, the rear rail is only for support.

But the modern ladder rear rails have a step-through which we can climb.

Front Side Rails

It is a climbing rail of the ladder. In between two front side rails, steps are there through which a person can climb.


These connect two front rails. To climb on the ladder, we use steps. It can be circular, rectangular, or flat depending on the design & manufacturer.

Some manufacturers add anti-slip material in the step to protect the user from falling out from the step.


The function of the spreader is to prevent the rear and front rails from moving too far from each other. When we open the step ladder, the spreader creates a safe distance between rails and gives stability to the ladder by absorbing the load.

When we close the ladder, spreaders come inside and while opening it goes outside.


The feet protect the ladder from slipping. When somebody climbs the ladder, due to its weight and angle of inclination ladder might misstep. So feet help to protect against slipping.

Feet come in different types of material, but anti-slip material is a usable and common material used in feet.

Parts of an Extension Ladder

Fly Section

It is an extending part of the ladder which slides and becomes double the height. As per the requirement, we can increase the altitude of the fly section.

Base Section

It is a static part of the ladder. It supports the fly section and another part of the ladder.

Rope and Pulley Section

It allows the fly section to go down and up. To do that, we have to pull the rope.


Rungs play the same function as steps play in a step ladder. In the extension ladder, there are rungs instead of steps. Rungs are metallic rod that permits the ladder fly portion to move up and down.

Rung Locks

Once the fly section moves up, we have to lock it to climb on the ladder. So we use a rung lock system.

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