Complete Guide on 16 Types of Bricks in Masonry Construction: Names & Pictures

A brick is a fundamental building element employed in constructing walls, pavements, and various masonry structures. Although traditionally crafted from clay, brick has evolved to contain diverse materials, including chemically cured building blocks. Masonry bricks are used to construct and are made of compositions including clay, concrete lime, or fly ash. Structural requirements and aesthetic preferences influence the selection of specific types of bricks. You can easily interconnect each brick by applying mortar adhesives or interlocking mechanisms. Specialized facilities called brickworks typically produce bricks, manufacturing many classifications, variations, materials, and sizes. These bricks show regional diversity, and manufacturers often have them in substantial quantities to meet the unique construction needs of different areas.

Types of Bricks Pictures

Types of Bricks, Names & Pictures

Types of Bricks

  • Burnt Clay Bricks
  • Sun-dried clay Bricks/ Mud Bricks
  • Concrete Bricks
  • Engineering Bricks
  • Sand Lime Bricks
  • Fly Ash Bricks
  • Fire Bricks (Refractory Bricks)
  • Common Bricks
  • Clay Bricks
  • Perforated Bricks
  • Hollow Clay Bricks
  • Solid Bricks
  • Lightweight Bricks
  • Acid Bricks
  • Bullnose Bricks

Common Types of Bricks: Names & Functions

Burnt Clay Bricks

People commonly refer to burnt clay bricks as “common bricks” due to their widespread use in contemporary construction. These bricks serve many purposes, including constructing columns, walls, and foundations.

In the context of wall assembly, it is imperative to coat burnt clay bricks with mortar, a process known as plastering or rendering. This application enhances the overall robustness, resistance to water infiltration, and insulating attributes of the bricks.

Regarding quality stratification, burnt clay bricks can be classified into four distinct grades. The lowest-grade, fourth-class bricks are characterized by excessive over-burning. They have irregular morphologies and frequent susceptibility to fracturing. As a result, they are primarily suitable for use as aggregate material.

Third-class category bricks have subpar quality and are primarily reserved for provisional structures. While displaying moderate quality, second-class bricks retain irregular shapes and coarse surfaces with an inherent susceptibility to fine fractures.

The first-class classification occupies the pinnacle of quality within the burnt clay brick spectrum. Distinguished by their uniform geometries. Refined surfaces. Elevated durability and strength. These premier bricks are highly sought after for superior construction endeavors.

Sun-dried clay Bricks/ Mud Bricks

Basic sun-dried clay bricks can be an appealing choice for avid DIY enthusiasts. These rudimentary bricks have historical roots dating back to 7,000 BC. They originated in the regions of southern Turkey and the modern-day Palestinian city of Jericho. These bricks offer a tangible connection to the past.

Comprising a blend of loamy soil, water, and straw. Their structural integrity can be fortified using manure, clay, or sand additives. This effectively mitigates the risk of undesirable cracking.

The brick production process involves placing the prepared mixture carefully into molds and then situating them in a dry environment, sheltered from rainfall. The pivotal drying phase ensues, during which the bricks gradually solidify.

Once thoroughly dry, you can extract them from the molds and prepare them for use in temporary masonry ventures. However, DIY practitioners must acknowledge the inherent limitations of these bricks.

It possesses the distinction of being one of the least durable and weakest brick variants. It would be best to never rely on them for tasks involving structural support or foundational underpinnings.

By heeding this caveat, DIY enthusiasts can make the most of these bricks for projects where load-bearing considerations are not paramount.

Concrete Bricks

These solid concrete bricks find frequent application in internal brickwork and the construction of facades and fences. The manufacturing process involves casting concrete into specialized molds, allowing producers the flexibility to create an array of sizes and shapes.

These versatile concrete bricks are readily procurable at local hardware stores or masonry suppliers. Furthermore, skilled professionals can produce these concrete bricks on-site. They use a traditional mixture consisting of one part cement, two parts sand, and four parts aggregates.

Opt for a more robust variant. Modify the composition: one part cement, three parts sand, and six parts aggregates. This is recommended for foundational purposes.

People commonly use concrete bricks to improve facades, carry out interior brickwork, and build outdoor walls. Their notable advantage stems from the ability to manufacture them directly at construction sites.

Proficient masons can do this, thereby economizing time. This also mitigates expenses associated with transporting materials for sizable construction undertakings.

Engineering Bricks

Structural engineers highly favor building bricks for their exceptional compressive strength and remarkable density. These attributes render them eminently suitable for deployment as integral load-bearing components.

Notably, the distinctive characteristic of limited porosity exhibited by engineering bricks is pivotal. This feature conveys a restricted moisture absorption capacity. It precludes issues such as fissures, disintegration, or permeation.

This controlled porosity helps to boost moisture resistance. It also enhances resilience & prevents infiltrating contaminants. These contaminants could otherwise initiate internal corrosion. This corrosion can damage construction materials.

Engineers use compact, chemically inert, waterproof engineering bricks for constructing underground footings. They also frequently employ them in sewage systems, access chambers, and towers.

Sand Lime Bricks

Sand lime bricks exhibit exceptional compressive strength. They are a ubiquitous choice for load-bearing walls within residential and multi-story edifices. This is attributable to their sand, lime, and chromatic additives composition. These additives are used for diversifying final aesthetics.

These bricks obviate the necessity for copious mortar plaster, thereby concomitantly economizing temporal and financial resources.

Manufactured through a process involving elevated temperature and pressure. The chemical kinetics of sand lime bricks are profoundly expedited. This culminates in flawlessly textured bricks. These bricks evince remarkable aptitude for construction exigencies.

The inherent density of the sand lime amalgam substantially retards the propagation of sound waves. This makes them a prevalent preference for acoustic insulation applications.

Fly Ash Bricks

Fly ash emerges as a byproduct from the heart of coal-fired power plants, laden with elements that bear a hazardous touch — mercury, arsenic, anthracene, and chromium. Yet, from this industrial residue, a remarkable transformation occurs.

Enter fly ash bricks, crafted from the fusion of class C or class F fly ash, quicklime, cement, aluminum powder, gypsum, and water. These bricks breathe new life into waste and curtail the escape of pernicious metals into our ecosystem. Their form is unwaveringly precise, fashioned by machine molds, setting them apart.

These bricks genuinely shine in the realm of strength and absorption, casting a formidable challenge to traditional burnt clay bricks. A resilient substitute, their compressive might stand tall while their affinity for water remains minimal.

Yet, like any grand endeavor, there are limits; the more significant their size, the more their tenacity wanes. A tale of cracks and fractures unravels regarding sizable fly ash slabs. Thus, nature dictates that fly ash bricks find their purpose in the realm of the petite, where their excellence remains undisputed.

Fire Bricks (Refractory Bricks)

Firebricks are the top choice for masonry projects requiring exceptional heat and fire resistance. They provide unmatched durability.

Often referred to as refractory bricks, these building blocks take shape from an exceptional clay variant recognized as fireclay, distinguished by its elevated composition of silica and alumina. This distinctive composition empowers firebricks to brave temperatures that surge beyond the threshold of 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit.

The endurance of firebricks isn’t confined solely to fiery infernos. Instead, it extends its grasp to encompass frigid chills. It also handles sudden, dramatic oscillations between extremes of heat and cold.

The architectural utility of these bricks transcends the mundane. They find their prowess in erecting furnaces that breathe with purpose. Chimneys stand as sentinels of safety.

Fireplaces ignite both warmth and aesthetics. Sturdy brick grills sizzle with delight. Fire pits weave tales of camaraderie. Even wood-fired ovens birth culinary masterpieces from the embrace of intense heat.

Other Types of Bricks

Common Bricks

Commonly seen as the go-to choice in modern construction, standard bricks are the basic building blocks made from clay. They have a simple appearance without any fancy designs or colors.

People can use these bricks in various ways, such as constructing walls, dividing spaces, supporting structures, and creating homes for communities. Although they naturally vary in color and texture, people sometimes polish them to achieve a smooth and shiny surface.

Clay Bricks

Making clay bricks involves baking clay at high temperatures, which binds the particles together to create ceramic solid bricks. This transformation not only gives the bricks strength but also gives them a distinct, warm, earthy color.

However, it’s possible to create different colors by controlling factors like the environment in the kiln, precise temperatures, and the type of clay used.

The texture of the bricks can also be changed, adding to their attractiveness. Designed to last a long time and remain tough, clay bricks showcase durability and strength.

Perforated Bricks

Marshall’s perforated facing bricks have holes running through them vertically, typically three of them. These bricks come in various colors: grey, blue, buff, cream, and red. The holes are filled with mortar to connect and strengthen building bricks.

Since the holes go straight through, it doesn’t matter if the bricks are placed with holes facing up or down. These hole-filled bricks are lighter than those with a frogged design, speeding up production and allowing for quicker bricklaying.

Hollow Clay Bricks

Hollow clay bricks have been spotlighted, earning the name “Nouveau-Brick.” These innovative bricks, also known as Porotherm or Perforated bricks, stand out due to their perforations that hold insulation.

They are distinct for being lightweight, water-resistant, eco-friendly, and providing excellent thermal insulation. But there’s more—they also look better than regular clay bricks, adding to the aesthetics. These bricks offer both fire resistance and robust security, ensuring lasting buildings.

Solid Bricks (Types of Bricks)

Solid bricks stand as a cornerstone of construction. They derive strength, insulation, and adaptability from a distinct composition and production process. These bricks comprise clay or shale, with occasional additives like sand and lime for balance.

The manufacturing journey involves raw material blending, meticulous molding, controlled drying, high-temperature firing, and methodical cooling. After this process, they’re ready for versatile application. Bricks provide structural integrity as load-bearing walls.

They ensure thermal balance, capitalize on fire resistance, and enhance sound insulation. Additionally, they add aesthetic dimensions through textures and hues. Bricks extend durability to outdoor spaces like driveways and walkways.

Lightweight Bricks

Imagine bricks that are light as foam, made from a blend of silica and special additives. These ingredients and some rare earth materials are mixed and shaped under high pressure.

Firing them at high temperatures creates lightweight bricks. Manufacturers also produce other types of light bricks using ingredients such as clay, strong alumina beads, and specific types of earth.

These bricks are not only light, but they’re also great at keeping warmth and can stay balanced even during earthquakes.

Acid Bricks (Types of Bricks)

Acid brick is also called acid-resistant brick. These are a special kind of brick that withstand chemicals and high temperatures. It’s made from high silica shale and baked at higher temperatures than regular bricks.

Sometimes, it’s baked for over a week. These bricks are strong enough to handle pressure, with an average strength of about 23,000 PSI. They are used to make floors that won’t get damaged by acids.

These bricks line the inside chambers and towers in chemical plants and even the walls of pipes carrying industrial waste.

Bullnose Bricks (Types of Bricks)

A bullnose design is a crafting technique commonly utilized on the frontal edge of bricks or pavers, resulting in a softened and rounded appearance. Bullnose bricks indicate a type of brickwork where you intentionally smooth a segment or all corners into curved contours.

These specialized bricks introduce subtle and captivating curved outlines to architectural elements such as staircases, ledges, and partitions. In the case of a double bullnose, artisans apply this artistic approach to both adjoining edges, creating a fully rounded header with a distinctive aesthetic appeal.

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